Helen King Garner
Helen King Garner was born on January 3, 1839, in Madison, Alabama, her father, Daniel H. Dumas, was 32, and her mother, Catherine Wills Drinkwater, was 20. She married JOHN ROGERS DUMAS on December 18, 1866. They had at least six children during their marriage. She died in 1915 in Cândido Rodrigues, Sao Paulo, Brazil, having lived a long life of 76 years.
John was the son of David Dumas and Elizabeth Norman. He was born in Wins-ton County, Mississippi in 1837 and died in 1886 at Santa Barbara d'Oeste, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
John enlisted in 1861 at Neshoba County, Mississippi as a private with the Eleventh Reg-iment, Mississippi Infantry, Company D. Shortly after the war he married Helen on December 18, 1866. It is uncertain as records are scant during that time period where they were married and when they arrived in Texas. It is possible that they met in Texas as Helen's uncle, Thomas Garner was already a resident of Hopkins County , having moved there in 1857. Helen and John must have been part of the Garner family that left central Texas.
Below are the notes on Thomas Garner and family:
Thomas Garner and brother William Hall Garner: According to memoir left by William Hall Garner's daughter, they left Alabama in November of 1856 and arrived in Texas in the winter of 1857. They stayed with relatives in Jackson Parish Louisiana and I think this must be first cousins Diana Cople and Silas Garner, children of Eli Garner. Thomas' wife died in Greenwood Louisiana between Shreveport and the Texas line.
Following information provided by Ruby Wallace - descendant of Thomas Garner/Lucinda Rogers.
According to the 1850 Benton Co., Ala. census, Thomas Garner was born in South Carolina. Lucinda was listed on the 1850 census, but did not show up on the 1860 census of Hopkins County, Texas with Thomas. She apparently died, either in Alabama, on the trip to Texas, or in Texas. There was a W. W. Garner, born about 1808, also in South Carolina, living next door to Thomas Garner in Benton County, Alabama in 1850. This is probably a brother.
It is known that Thomas Garner left Texas in 1866-1867 with a group of Southerners, which included his daughter, Susan Jane Garner Wright and her family, along with Thomas' daughter, Rachel Garner Russell. Rachel, her husband, F. M., and one-year old son, Thomas, were living in Hopkins County in 1860 next door to her father, Thomas Garner. It is believed that Rachel's husband was the Frank M. Russell who served in the 1st Tex. Vol. Inf. Regiment, Company 1, Crockett Southrons, organized in Houston Co., Texas and mustered into the war at New Orleans, June 24, 1861. Frank M. Russell was recruited at Alto, Texas, March 22, 1862, was listed as sick in the summer of 1862 with rheumatism, sick in the fall of 1862 with typhoid fever, discharged from service with ulcerated leg on April 14, 1864. Apparently Frank M. Russell, and the baby Thomas, died prior to 1866 because neither of them were mentioned in the stories that were told regarding the travels of the Americans who went to South America after the Civil War. Perhaps they died from the typhoid fever which he had in 1862. Rachel Russell was referred to as being a widow.
It is not known what happened to the other children that belonged to Thomas Garner and Lucinda, with the exception of the son Edwin M. Garner who was listed in Thomas' house-hold in the 1860 census records of Hopkins County, Texas. Apparently Edwin M. Garner is the E. M. Garner who served in the 4th Texas Vol. Inf. Regiment, Co. 1, Navarro Rifles, which was organized in Navarro Co., Texas, enrolled there on July 17, 1861, and was mustered into the CSA at Richmond, Va. Sept. 30, 1861. E. M. Garner was wounded in the head at Gaines' Mill June 27, 1862, was killed at the battle at Antietam on September 17, 1862. It is not known where Edwin M. Garner was buried.
After the Civil War, Susan Jane Garner Wright and family, along with her father, Thomas Garner, and sister, Rachel Garner Russell, set sail for Brazil, South America. They were going to make this their home; however, due to trouble arising Susan and her children returned to Texas at the latter part of the 1880s. Her husband and one son reached Texas about two years later. She never saw her father or sister again. They died and were buried in The Campo Cemetery, situated in Santa Barbara County (today Santa Barbara D'Oeste) Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This cemetery was started in 1868 because of the prohibition of burying of non-Roman Catholics in the common official cemeteries, according to Imperial Brazilian law. Neither Thomas Garner or Rachel Garner Russell Crawley have markers at this cemetery. Shortly after reaching Brazil, Rachel had remarried to Mr. C. A. Crawley who had made the trip from Texas with the Garner family. He had the misfortune of being thrown off of a table, where he had been sleeping, during the wreck of the "Derby" breaking his collarbone. He continued on regardless of his condition.
Thomas Garner joined the Methodist Church in Santa Barbara about 1881. The date of his death is not known. Rachel Russell Crawley was also a member of this church. Her death date is not known.
Helen King Garner and John Rogers Dumas had at least six children:
1. Catherine Elizabeth Garner Dumas 1869-1956
Married Benjamin "Bony" Hammond Green (See Green Family)
2. Octavia King Dumas
Octavia was born on May 18, 1871, the second child of Helen and John. She was born in Santa Barbara , d'Oeste Esperança, Sao Paulo, Brazil and died on June 6, 1945 in Tatuí -São Paulo - Brasil. Sometime around 1892 she married James Milton Pyle, the son of Samuel Milton Pyle and Nancy Elmira Banymore Rasor, both of Abbeville, South Carolina. James was born on November 9, 1856 in Chatooga, Carroll County, Georgia and he died on April 8, 1928 in Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, Município de Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil.
Octavia and James would have at least ten Children:
1. Charles Dick Pyles
Charles was born about 1892 in Brazil and married Antonieta (Lidia) Ulhoa. They would have at least four children. No further information.
1. Mario Ulhoa Pyles
Mario was born in Brazil in 1929 and died there in 1967 . No futher information.
2. Glover Pyles
No further information.
3. Nilza Pyles
No further information.
4. Jose Pyles
No further information.
2. Mary Helen Pyles
Mary was born about 1894 in Brazil.
No further information.
4. Catherine Pauline Pyles
Catherine was born on November 14, 1900 in Americana, Sao Paulo, Brazil. She was married to Anthony Caputo while in Brazil, date unknown. On July 4, 1953 she married for the second time to Anthony Joseph in Lawrence, Indiana, USA. Anthony Joseph was born on November 13, 1890 in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA. No further information.
5. George Washington Pyles
George was born on March 10, 1902 in Brazil.
No further information.
6. Margarida Amy Pyles
Margarida was born on January 17, 1909 in Santa Bárbara d' Oeste -São Paulo - Brasil and died on July 15, 1949 Garça - São Paulo - Brasil. About 1938 in Brazil Margarida married
Aurino Gomes Ribeiro. Aurino was born on May 20, 1910 in Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil and died on July 9, 1996 in Garca, Sao Paulo, Brazil. He was the son of Antonio Gomes Ribeiro and Escolástica de Campos.
Margarida and Aurino would have at least one child:
1. Aises Friene "Cece" Pyles was born on April 2, 1938 in Sao Paulo, Brazil and died on April 2, 1967 in Seattle, King County, Washington, USA. In 1958 in the state of Illinois, she married Howard Joseph Shelton. Howard was the son of Henry Garfield Shelton and Alice Hutchins Venable. Howard was married three times - the first in 1942 to Ruth Mary Parker, the second, in 1958, to Cece Pyles and the third, after Cece's death, in 1969 to Kathryn A, Wall. That marriage ended in divorce three years later. The only child mentioned is that of his first wife, a son named David Joseph Shelton (1943-2010).
7. Judson Whitaker Pyles
Judson was born on Christmas day December 25, 1912 in Brazil. He was married to Otilia Choelho de Aguiar. No further information.
8. Julia Pyles
No further information.
9. Winnie Pyles
No further information.
10. William Pyles
No further information.
3. William Garner Dumas
William was born in Santa Barbara d'oeste, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
No further information.
4. Helen Garner Dumas
Helen was married to Elpidio Silveira
No further information.
5. Sturdy Garner Dumas
Sturdy was married to Georgina (Unknown)
No further information.
6. Norman Garner Dumas
Norman was born in Santa Barbara d'oeste, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
No further information.
William Garner Dumas
Howard J. Shelton
James M. Pyles
Catherine E. Dumas
Octavia K. Dumas
Norman Garner Dumas
DANIEL GARNER (Father of Helen King Garner)
Daniel was born on April 13, 1806, in Pendleton District, now Anderson County, South Caro-lina, and died on May 30 1893 Gainsville Junction, Kemper County, Mississippi. A year or two after his birth his father had moved the family to Madison County, Alabama when the Indian lands had freed up. On May 12, 1838, Daniel married Catherine Wills Drinkwater in Greene County Alabama. She was born on September 30, 1818, in Abbeville, Abbeville County, South Carolina to Samuel and Martha Bell Woods Drinkwater, Samuel had served his country in the War of 1812 against the English. Catherine died on April 16, 1896, at Oak Grove, Kemper County, Mississippi.
Daniel and Catherine left Alabama for Mississippi, probably after the death of Daniel's father, Sturdy in 1844 probably about 1850 as Daniel and Catherine's first seven children were born in Madison County, Alabama, and the last three in Kemper County, Mississippi.We do know that Daniel was a large and prosperous cotton grower in Mississippi and was well established prior to 1860. There is a bit of a discrepancy about the actual date of the family moving to Mississippi. In the following excerpt, we see Daniel biult a home in Kemper County in 1836. This was before he had married. Did he travel between Alabama and Mississippi before finally settling in Kemper County?
From the below Certificate we see that Daniel was very successful. Eleven hundred Dollars in 1861 was quite a sum.
"Southeast Kemper - It's People & Communities" by Louis Parmer, 1982 LCCC#82-60820 and Mississippi WPA Project A761 Kemper County microform 976.2 U58
We have a description of the plantation home:
1850 Census : Helen listed as nine years old.
1860 Census : Helen is shown at nineteen years old.
Daniel's Will, dated in 1883 divides up his property to only a few of his sons and his wife, the others having received their inheritance prior to his death, Helen included.
Daniel and Catherine would have ten children:
1. John Robert Garner 1839-1889 (CSA)
2. Helen King Garner 1841-1915
3. Septimus Garner 1842-1920 (CSA)
4. Marcellus Craig Garner Sr. 1844-1908 (CSA)
5. Sturdy S. Garner 1845-1869 (CSA)
6. William Argy Garner 1847-1868 (CSA)
7. Martha W. Garner 1850-1868
8. Valerie "Vallie" Catherine Garner 1851-1932
9. Octavia J. Garner 1855-1867
10. Sallie Burton Garner 1855-1911
John Robert Garner
STURDY F. GARNER (Grandfather of Helen King Garner)
Sturdy Garner is apparently the progenitor of hundreds of Garners in the Western United States. Sturdy himself must have been a restless type. He was born in Fauquier County, Virginia in 1762. In 1779, at the age of 17, Sturdy entered the service of the Revolution, in his own words, when his "brother Lewis Garner4 was called out to go after the Tories, (my) brother being a man of family, (I) entered as a substitute in his place, in a company commanded by Captain William Gwinn." According to further testimony in his application for a pension, Sturdy was living in Orange County, N. C. when this company of Revolutionary soldiers was raised. In three short-term enlistments during the Revolution, Sturdy Garner saw ten months active duty and was granted a pension of $38.33 per year, beginning March 4, 1831. Sturdy's third enlistment was under General Robert Lawson. After Sturdy's company was raised, they rendezvoused at Prince Edward Courthouse in Virginia, 135 miles north of Sturdy's family home in Orange County, N. C.
Sturdy Garner married Sarah Smith about 1787 and moved to Pendleton County, S. C. along with his brother James. Sturdy's family did not stay long. Some time between 1800 and 1808, Sturdy took his family to the Tennessee- Alabama border area (then Mississippi Territory). Sturdy died in Madison County, Alabama in 1844. Sturdy and Sarah (Smith) Garner had children:
Pension application of Sturdey Garner S16819 Transcribed by Will Graves State of Alabama, Madison County
On this 29th day of October 1832 personally appeared in open court, before William J. Adair, Judge of the Circuit Court of said County, now sitting, Sturdey Garner a resident of the County & State aforesaid, aged 70 years, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath, make the following declaration, in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress passed 7th June 1832:
That he entered the service of the United States under the following named officers & served as herein Stated – That in the year 1779 to the best of his recollection, his brother Lewis Garner was called out to go after the Tories, that his brother being a man of family, he entered as a substitute in his place, in a company commanded by Captain William Gwinn, that he was then about 17 years of age, & lived in the County of Orange in the State of North Carolina, where his company was raised, that the company rendezvoused at Colonel William O'Neal's in the County of Orange, that there were about three or 400 men that rendezvoused there & that Colonel O'Neal took command of them & marched them down into Chatham County, into Randolph County, & down on Deep River, scouting about after the Tories he states they took many of the Tories, but were unable to get Colonel Fanning & Major Walker who he under-stood were their officers – he states that after scouting for about two months after the Tories, he returned to the County of Orange and were discharged at Colonel O'Neal's house.
The officers that he now recollects were Captain Rodgers, Captain Whitesel, Colonel O'Neal & Major Edward Gwinn. The applicant states that after his return home he went down into the County of Prince Edward in the State of Virginia & had been there but a short time before he was drafted, he thinks in the year 1780, as well as he recollects, in the spring of that year –
He states that he was drafted in a Company commanded by Captain Jesse Owens, that he obtained from his Captain a furlough to go up to his father's in Orange County in the State of North Carolina, about 130 miles from Prince Edward, to make preparations for the tour, that he joined his Captain & the American Army at Hillsboro in North Carolina about 18 or 19 miles from his father's, where they remained for about four weeks – That General Gates came on through Hillsboro with his Army halted a while, & then marched on towards Camden in South Carolina; shortly afterwards General Stephens who was then at Hillsboro with his troops & who was our commanding officer received expresses to hasten to Camden, we immediately took up the line of March & made forced marches night & day, & reached Camden the evening before the battle commenced.
He states he was in the engagement at Camden-- that they were defeated & they retreated to Hillsboro, from there they marched to Guilford court house in North Carolina, where they remained a while, from there to Rockingham County in said State on Hogan's Creek, remained there a short time, from thence back to Guilford, where after serving six months he states he was discharged by Colonel Forkner – during this campaign he recollects to have seen General Gates, Col Lynes, Major Morris, Major Conway, Col. Forkner,--
He recollects the Lieutenant of his Company whose name was Dudley Hammond he also remembers Ensign Hammond-- he states at the time of his discharge the Company was under the command of Captain Jones – Captain Owens having gone home; after being discharged he states he returned home to Prince Edward County in Virginia which he thinks was in the latter part of September or first of October 1780. The applicant further states that in the year 1781 but what month he is unable to say, nor is he is positive as to the year, but he thinks in the first part of the year 1781 –
He again entered the Service of the United States under General Robert Lawson, as a volun-teer, he states he rendezvoused at Prince Edward Courthouse, that whilst he laid there which was about three or four weeks, Colonel John Holcomb raised out of General Lawson's Brigade a volunteer Regiment of light infantry, that he joined that Regiment in a Company commanded by Captain Wilson, this Regiment of light infantry consisted of about 200 men, he states that he marched from Prince Edward to the lower part of Virginia crossed James River at Carter's ferry about 2 miles below the British encampment, that they continued about two or three months reconnoitering the British line, to prevent their depredations – during which time he states they took several British prisoners, & many Negroes & horses from them – that they had several encounters with the British – never but one man wounded – that on one occasion when General Wayne attacked the British at James Town [sic, Jamestown] and they were crossing the River he states they lay about 7 miles off, they heard the commencement of the battle, & immediately hasten[ed] on & arrived in sight when General Wayne was retreating, but did not get there in time for the battle.
He states that at the end of about two or three months, he thinks in the month of September 1781 he was discharged by his Colonel. He recollects Colonel Holcomb, Major Thomas Watkins, Major Asa Parnell, he does not recollect any of his company officers except his Captain as above stated. He states that he had written discharges of his terms of service, but that they have been lost, & that he has now no documentary evidence of any of his terms of service, that he knows of no person by whom he can prove the same, but relies on his statement above which is the result of an indistinct memory; He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present & declares that his name is not on the pension roll of the agency of any State.
Sworn to & subscribed the day & year aforesaid & in open Court 29 October 1832. Test: S/ Lemuel Mead, Clerk S? Sturdey Garner
[William Eddins, Sr., a clergyman, Isaac Wellborn, Sr., and Drury M. Allen, neighbors, give the standard certifications of character for veracity, age and believed in the neighborhood of his services as a revolutionary war soldier.]
Lemuel Mead, Clerk of the Madison County Court attested the documents.
Below is a DAR Record. This information is included because to be a member of the DAR, an application is filed and all descendants are proven by professional genealogists.
Member: -- Name Restricted -- Nat'l #: 680447
Ancestor #: A044082
1. -- Generation Restricted --
2. -- Generation Restricted --
3. The Said -- Name Restricted -- was the child of James William Carter born on 27 - Mar - 1861 at Oak Grove MS died at West Point MS on 1 - Jun - 1949 and his ( 1st ) wife Sallie Burton Garner born on 9 - Mar - 1859 at Oak Grove MS died at West Point MS on 5 - Oct - 1911 married on 26 - Jan - 1880 married at Oak Grove MS
4. The Said Sallie Burton Garner was the child of Daniel H Garner born on 13 - Apr - 1806 at SC died at Oak Grove MS on 30 - May - 1893 and his ( 1st ) wife Catherine W Drinkwater born on 30 - Sep - 1816 at SC died at Oak Grove MS on 16 - Apr - 1896 married on 12 - May - 1838 married at Green Co AL
5. The Said Daniel H Garner was the child of Sturdy Garner born on 9 - Apr - 1762 at Orange Co NC died at Madison Co AL on 4 - Mar - 1845 and his ( 1st ) wife Sarah Smith born on - - 1770 at PA died at Madison Co AL on - Sep - 1846 married on - - 1787
ASSOCIATED ANCESTOR (REVOLUTIONARY) RECORD
Ancestor #: A044082
Service: NORTH CAROLINA - VIRGINIA Rank(s): PRIVATE
Birth: 4-9-1762 ORANGE CO NORTH CAROLINA
Death: 3-4-1845 MADISON CO ALABAMA
Pension Number: *S16819
1) CAPTS GWINN,OWENS,JONES; COLS O'NEAL,
2) FANNING,FAULKNER,HOLCOMB; CAPT WILSON
Children of Sturdy and Sarah:
1. John "Major" Garner 1779-1865
2. William W. Garner 1787-1846
3. Milton C. Garner 1787-1846
4. Sarah Garner 1787-1800
5. Samuel Garner 1789-1840 (Husband of Webmaster's 1st Cousin 5 X removed)
6. Elizabeth Garner 1795-1875
7. Robert Craig Garner 1796-1846
8. Archibald Leander "Argy" Garner 1802-1867
9. Sturdy F. Garner 1802-1860
10. Thomas Garner 1805-1881 (Uncle of Helen King Garner - Went to Brazil with Texas group)
11. Abner Garner 1806-1867
12. Daniel H. Garner 1807-1881
13. John C. Garner 1808-1889
The Great Grandson of Obadiah Brice Garner was John Nance Garner.
John Nance Garner III (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967), known among his contemporaries as "Cactus Jack", was an American Democratic
politician and lawyer from Texas. He was the 32nd vice president of the United States, serving from 1933 to 1941. He was also the 39th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1931 to 1933. Along with Schuyler Colfax, Garner is one of only two individuals to serve as vice president of the United States and speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
Garner began his political career as the county judge of Uvalde County, Texas. He served in the Texas House of Representatives from 1898 to 1902 and won election to represent Texas in the United States House of Repre-sentatives in 1902. He represented Texas's 15th congressional district from 1903 to 1933. Garner served as House Minority Leader from 1929 to 1931, and was elevated to Speaker of the House when Democrats won control of the House following the 1930 elections.
Garner sought the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1932 presidential election, but he agreed to serve as Franklin D. Roos-evelt's running mate at the 1932 Democratic National Convention. Roosevelt and Garner won the 1932 election and were re-elected in 1936. A conservative Southerner, Garner opposed the sit-down strikes of the labor unions and the New Deal's deficit spending. He broke with Roosevelt in early 1937 over the issue of enlarging the Supreme Court, and helped defeat it on the grounds that it centralized too much power in the President's hands. Garner again sought the presidency in the 1940 presidential election, but Roosevelt won the party's presidential nomination at the 1940 Democratic National Convention. Garner was replaced as Vice President by Henry A. Wallace and retired from public office in 1941.
PARISH GARNER (Great Grandfather of Helen King Garner)
Parish Garner was born in Stafford county Virginia in an area that later became Fauquier county. He married Margaret Sturdy, daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Sturdy, on January 2, 1742, according to be Overwharton Parish register. It Seems that for many years, Parish and Charles, his brother, shared the land they inherited from their father without heed to boundaries, but on March 20, 1758, they requested a survey and subdivision into two 400 acre plots.
In May 1764, Parish and Margaret Garner sold their four hundred acres to Tom Helm and moved to Orange county, North Carolina, to a site about 18 miles from Hillsboro, the county seat. It is possible that they lived for a while in south-side Virginia, probably near Prince Edward Courthouse, because Parish’s son, Sturdy Garner, claims in his application for a Revolutionary war pension that he “went home” to join the army his third term of service, mustering at Prince Edward Courthouse. There was a Garner family living in nearby Pittsyl-vania county in 1767, a Thomas and a James were listed as tithables in that year. During Parish and Margaret's residence near Hillsboro, they owned around 400 acres on “Reedy Fork of Haw River.”
It is a assumed that Parish Garner died sometime between 1790 and 1800, since he is enumer-ated in the the 1790 census but not in 1800. It is claimed that Parish Garner was one of the regulators, a radical group of North Carolina colonists rebelled against England’s oppressive trade and taxation policies as early as 1770 in the battle of Alamance.
Parish and Margaret Sturdy Garner had children:
1. James Giles Garner 1742-1794
2. Nancy Garner 1742-1800
3. Thomas Garner 1744-1814
4. John Garner 1745-1825
5. William Garner 1746-1800
6. Lewis O. Garner 1750-1810
7. Parish Garner 1755-1813
8. Wyatt Garner 1756-1813
9. Henry Garner 1760-1835
10. Sturdy F. Garner 1762-1844
11. Enoch "Book" Garner 1764-1834
12. Obadiah Brice Garner 1767-1821
13. Vincent Bullock Tunstall Garner 1771-1851
14. David Garner 1775-1833
A Little American History
WAR OF REGULATION
The War of the Regulation, also known as Regulator Movement, was an uprising in British America's Carolina colonies, lasting from around 1765 to 1771, in which citizens took up arms against colonial officials, whom they viewed as corrupt. Though the rebellion did not change the power structure, some historians consider it a catalyst to the American Revolutionary War. Others like John Spencer Bassett take the view that the Regulators did not wish to change the form or principle of their government, but simply wanted to make the colony's political process more equal. They wanted better economic conditions for everyone, instead of a system that heavily benefited the colonial officials and their network of plantation owners mainly near the coast. Bassett interprets the events of the late 1760s in Orange and sur-rounding counties as "...a peasants' rising, a popular upheaval.
Causes of rebellion
Population increase and new settlers arrive
The British colonial Provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina experienced dramatic population growth in the 1760s, following the increased migration of colonists arriving from the eastern cities seeking greater opportunities in the emer-ging rural west. The inland section of the colonies had once been predominantly composed of planters with an agricultural economy. Merchants and lawyers began to move west, upsetting the social and political structure. They were joined by new Scots-Irish immigrants, who populated the backcountry.
At the same time, the local inland agricultural community suffered from a deep economic depression because of severe droughts throughout the previous decade. The loss of crops cost farmers their food source as well as their primary means of income, which led many to rely on the goods being brought by newly arrived merchants. Due to income loss, the local planters often fell into debt. The merchants, in turn, relied on lawyers and the court to settle disputes. Debts were common at the time, and from 1755 to 1765, the cases brought to the docket increased nearly sixteen-fold, from seven annually to 111 in Orange County, North Carolina, alone.
Class war and political corruption
Such court cases could often lead to planters losing their homes and property, so they grew to resent the presence of the newcomers. The shift in population and politics eventually led to an imbalance within the colony's courthouses, and the new and well-educated lawyers used their superior knowledge of the law to their sometimes unjust advantage. A small clique of wealthy officials formed an exclusive inner circle in charge of the legal affairs of the area. The group was seen as a 'courthouse ring' made up of officials who grabbed most of the political power for themselves. The abuse of the justice system was exacerbated by the tax-collecting local sheriffs supported by the courts. In many cases, the sheriffs and the courts held sole control over their local regions. Historian William S. Powell writes that these local officials were perceived to be "unjust and dishonest", having engaged in extortion, embezzlement, and other schemes to benefit themselves.
One early protest was the Nutbush Address, given by George Sims on June 6, 1765. George was from Nutbush (later Williamsboro, North Carolina). This address was a protest about provincial and county officials and the fees they charged residents of Granville County. This later led to the "Regulator Movement" in North Carolina.
Regulators organize and arrival of Governor Tryon
In 1764, several thousand people from North Carolina, mainly from Orange, Gran-ville, and Anson counties in the western region, were dissatisfied with the wealthy North Carolina officials, whom they considered cruel, arbitrary, tyrannical and corrupt. With the arrival of Royal Governor William Tryon in 1765, volatile condi-tions in North Carolina increasingly worsened. Many of the officers were greedy and often would band together with other local officials for their own personal gain. The entire system depended on the integrity of local officials, many of whom engaged in extortion; taxes collected often enriched the tax collectors directly. The system was endorsed by Governor Tryon, who feared losing the support of the various county officials
The effort to eliminate the system of government became known as the Regulator Uprising, War of the Regulation, or the Regulator War. The most heavily affected areas were said to be those of Rowan, Anson, Orange, Granville, Cumberland, and Dobbs counties. It was a struggle between mostly lower-class citizens, who made up the majority of the backcountry population of North and South Carolina, and the wealthy planter elite, who comprised about 5% of the population but maintained almost total control of the government.
The stated primary aim of the Regulators was to form an honest government and reduce taxation. The wealthy businessmen/politicians who ruled North Carolina saw it as a threat to their power. Ultimately, they brought in the militia to crush the rebellion and hanged its leaders. It is estimated that out of the 8,000 people living in Orange County at the time, some 6,000 to 7,000 supported the Regulators.
The War of the Regulation is considered a catalyst to the American Revolutionary War, and it was waged against corrupt officials representing king and crown. Almost 300 Regulators became part of the Patriot Movement, and only about 30 claimed loyalty to the British Crown.
Regulator leadership under Herman Husband
Herman Husband became one of the unofficial leaders of the Regulators. Husband was from Maryland, born into a Quaker family. One of the major flaws in Husband's campaign was he tried to invite good relations with the eastern regions of North Carolina, mostly unaffected by the issues with local sheriffs. Husband retained very little control over the Regulators, who generally went against his policies of winning over public sentiment and committed acts of minor violence at regular intervals.
Another Regulator leader was James Hunter. He refused to take command of the Regulators after Husband's departure before the Battle of Alamance. Captain Ben-jamin Merrill had about 300 men under his control and would have assumed control over military leadership after James Hunter, but he was unable to serve in the Battle of Alamance.
Governor Arthur Dobbs, who wrote such popular works as Trade and Improvement of H'elend and Captain Middleton's Defense, served as the Royal Governor of North Carolina until his death in 1765. William Tryon succeeded him. Tryon had a lavish home built in 1770 in New Bern. This was resented by the Regulators, who were already paying substantial taxes. William (The Regulator) Butler was quoted as saying, "We are determined not to pay the Tax for the next three years, for the Edifice or Governor's House, nor will we pay for it."
Governor Josiah Martin succeeded Governor Tryon in office just after the end of the rebellion. His policies eased the burden on former Regulators and allowed them to be assimilated back into society. Edmund Fanning was the main opposition to the Regulators. A graduate of Yale College, he was generally regarded by his friends as well disciplined and firm. He held many political offices in Orange County. He was once found guilty of embezzling money (along with Francis Nash) but was fined only one penny per charge.
Breaking up the provincial court
North Carolina's colonial court met in Hillsborough. In 1768, the Regulators entered Hillsborough, broke up the court, and dragged those they saw as corrupt officials through the streets. The mob attempted to have the judge try the cases that were pending against several Regulator leaders, including Husband. The presiding Judge Richard Henderson quickly adjourned the court until the next morning to avoid being forced to make a ruling in the presence of an angry mob of Regulators, and escaped in the night. The Regulators rioted, destroying public and private property alike. Fan-ning was among the lawyers beaten, found after taking refuge in a shop neighboring the courthouse. According to Judge Henderson, Fanning's beating was so severe that "one of his eyes was almost beaten out." The courthouse was systematically and symbolically vandalized. Human waste was placed on the judge's seat, and the body of a long deceased slave was placed upon the lawyers' bar. The mob continued to destroy shops and property in the town, and ultimately brought their destruction to Fanning's personal residence. After destroying all of the furniture and drinking all of his alcohol, they picked apart his entire house. Henderson's barn, along with his stables and home, were burned to the ground. They cracked the church bell of the Church of England but stopped short of looting the church.Documents
There were several different publications and petitions circulated to promote the end of taxation and other issues. A number of influential members of the area commu-nities signed the Regulator Advertisement and the Regulator Petition, of which there were several versions of each. Each document identified concerns and issues relevant to the Regulator Movement. The terms Regulation and Regulator were introduced in the Regulator Advertisement in 1768.
Battle of Alamance
While small acts of violence had been taking place for some time, mainly out of resentment, the first organized conflict was in Mecklenburg County in 1765. Settlers in the region, who were there illegally, forced away surveyors of the region assigned with designating land. Minor clashes followed for the next several years in almost every western county, but the only true battle of the war was the Battle of Alamance on May 16, 1771.
Governor Tryon and his forces, which numbered just over 1,000, with roughly 150 officers, arrived at Hillsborough on May 9. At the same time, General Hugh Waddell, supporting the governor, en route with his contingent of 236 men was met by a large contingent of Regulators under the leadership of Captain Benjamin Merrill. Realizing his force was outnumbered, he fell back to Salisbury. On May 11, having received word of the retreat from a messenger, Tryon sent the force to support General Wad-dell. He intentionally chose a path that would lead his forces through Regulator territory. He gave strict orders that nothing was to be looted or damaged. By May 14, his troops had reached Alamance and set up camp. Leaving about 70 men behind to guard the position, he moved the remainder of his force, slightly under 1,000 men, to find the Regulators.
About 10 miles (16 km) away, a force of approximately 2,000 Regulators (by some accounts, 6,000) without any clear leadership or supplies, was gathered mainly as a display of force and not a standing army. The general Regulator strategy was to scare the governor with a show of superior numbers in order to force the governor to give in to their demands. The first clash of the battle was on May 15, when a rogue band of Regulators captured two of the governor's militia soldiers. Governor Tryon had informed the Regulators that they were displaying open arms and rebellion and that action was to be taken if they did not disperse. The Regulators did not understand the severity of the crisis they were in and ignored the warning. Despite hesitation from his own forces, Governor Tryon allegedly initiated the main battle of Alamance on May 16 by shooting Robert Thompson, who was the first death of the battle. The Regulators resistance crumbled somewhat quickly. The battle was over with nine deaths for the governor's forces and about the same for the Regulators. Virtually everyone captured in the battle was fully pardoned in exchange for an allegiance to the crown; however, six Regulators were hanged for their part in the uprising, inclu-ding some officers of the colonial militia who had joined ranks with the Regulator's side. Those officers were Captain Robert Messer, Captain Benjamin Merrill, and Captain Robert Matear.
Following the battle, Tryon's militia army traveled through Regulator territory, where he had Regulators and Regulator sympathizers sign loyalty oaths and destroyed the properties of the most active Regulators. He also raised taxes to pay for his militia's defeat of the Regulators.
At the time of their defeat at Alamance, public opinion was decidedly against the Regulators. They were seen as "lawless desperadoes," and Governor Tryon was praised for his actions in stamping out the rebellion. As news articles spread the word of his victory, Tryon was branded a hero of the colonies for defeating the larger group of Regulators with his small, well prepared militia. However as the initial excitement over the battle died down, many newsmen, especially in the Boston area, began to question the reasons behind the rebellion and investigated further. Several reasons were found to regard the destruction of the Regulators as an act of an oppressive government. Most particularly admonished was the methods in which Tryon had used to win the battle. The use of a riot act and the execution of rebellion leaders after the battle was frowned upon. Reports also indicated that battlefield misconduct had taken place on the governor's side, including giving the farmers a two-hour warning period before the battle began, and subsequently breaking that agreement to bombard them with artillery fire.
Many of the main leaders remained in hiding until 1772, when they were no longer considered outlaws. Many Regulators moved further west into places such as Tenn-essee, notably establishing both the Watauga Association in 1772 and the State of Franklin in 1784.
THOMAS GARNER I (Great, Great, Grandfather
of Helen King Garner)
Thomas was born in 1669 in Cherry Point neck, Stafford County, Virginia. He died on July 13, 1726 in Stafford County. In 1688 he married Mary Martha (Mariah) Bushnell in Stafford County, Virginia. Mary, the daughter of Charles Bushnell and Mary Edwards, was born in 1673 and died on March 27, 1738. After the death of Thomas in 1726, Mary would marry again to Ralph Hughes in 1732 also in Stafford County. Ralph was born in 1670 and died in 1763, in Frederick County, Virginia.
Not much more information is known about Thomas or Mary.
Will of Thomas Garner:
To my eldest son John Garner 400 acres of land, lying on Tinpot Run in Rappahannock where my plantation is....between my son Thomas and my son John and to his heirs, wanting heirs to Parish if he has no heirs to son Charles, if he has no heirs to son James Garner,
To son John....3 cows 3 young cattle, a feather bed, a bolster, rugg, 2 blankets, 6 hogs of 2 years, also 6 hogs of 3 years, one iron pot, but not to have possession until he becomes of age of twenty-one, without his mother's consent.
To my son Thomas 400 acres lying below my son John's....3 cows, 3 calves, 3 barrows of 3 years, 3 brooding sows, an iron pot, one feather bed, one bolster, a rugg 2 blankets, when 21 years of age.
To my son Vincent a tract of about 400 acres o land beginning at the corner of Mr. James Withers, at Livking Run, running west to Thomas Welch, ...a feather bed, a bolster, a Rugg, 2 blankets, 3 cows and calves, 3 young cattle, 3 barrows of 3 years, 3 brooding sows and one iron pot.
To my son Parish Garner 400 acres lying on Licking Run running west to Tinpot Run in Rappahannock, joining the land of my son John, .... 3 cows 3 calves, 3 young cattle 3 barrows 3 sows and one iron pot.
To son Charles 400 acres of land on Licking Run over the Rappahannock River west to my son John's....(also a stock of household things like his brothers).
To my son James 400 acres of land running to the Rappahannock River and joining my son John's...(other things like his brothers).
To my daughter Susanna Garner 2 cows, 3 calves .... (etc.)
To my loving wife Mary all of the remaining part of my estate movable and unmovable, the dwelling plantation she now lives on for her life then to my son James...
(signed) Thomas Garner***
(above is taken from the Royal Roots & Country Kin family page on RootsWeb.com)
Children of Thomas and Mary Bushnell Garner (As per Will):
1. John Garner 1705-1762
2. Sussana Garner 1706-1804
2. Thomas Garner Jr. 1710-1796
3. Vincent Garner 1712-1796
4. Anne Jane Garner 1716-???? (Not mentioned in Will)
5. James garner 1718-1800
6. Parish Garner 1722-1790
7. Charles Garner 1724-1798
Dunking is a form of corporal punishment used in the medieval and Early Modern (17th-18th century) period; particularly in the middle of the 17th century.
As a trial
Ordeal by water was associated with the witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries: an accused who sank was considered innocent, while floating indicated witchcraft. Some argued that witches floated because they had renounced baptism when entering the Devil's service. King James VI of Scot-land (later also James I of England) claimed in his Daemonologie that water was so pure an element that it repelled the guilty.
The idea itself went back to classical times. Pliny the Elder in his Natural History of c.70 A.D. (translated by Philemon Holland), says: "Hee [Philarchus] reporteth besides of these kind of men [sc. witches], that they will never sink or drown in the water, be they charged never somuch with weightie & heavie apparel."
Francois Maximilian Misson, a French traveller and writer, recorded the method used in England in the early 18th century:
The way of punishing scolding women is pleasant enough. They fasten an armchair to the end of two beams twelve or fifteen feet long, and parallel to each other, so that these two pieces of wood with their two ends embrace the chair, which hangs between them by a sort of axle, by which means it plays freely, and always remains in the natural horizontal position in which a chair should be, that a person may sit conveniently in it, whether you raise it or let it down. They set up a post on the bank of a pond or river, and over this post they lay, almost in equilibrio, the two pieces of wood, at one end of which the chair hangs just over the water. They place the woman in this chair and so plunge her into the water as often as the sentence directs, in order to cool her immoderate heat.
The ducking stool, rather than being
fixed in position by the river or pond,
could be mounted on wheels to allow
the accused to be paraded through
the streets before punishment was
carried out. Another method of dun-
king was to use the tumbrel, which
consisted of a chair on two wheels
with two long shafts fixed to the axles.
This would be pushed into a pond
and the shafts would be released, tip-
ping the chair up backwards and dun-
king the occupant.
JOHN GARNER (Great, Great, Great, Grandfather
of Helen King Garner)
An interesting take on the John Garner story (Author Unknown)
John Garner (1634 - 1702) Much has been written about our ancestor, John Garner, after he was listed as a headright on a land claim in Northumberland County, Virginia, which was patented to Lewis Burwell on 17 October 1650. However, his earlier years have remained a mystery. Burwell claimed 1600 acres of land based on his statement that he had "trans-ported" thirty-two headrights to that area "upon the S. Side of Potomeck Riv. And E. Side of Machotick River alias Trent", abutting lands patented by William Gooch and Mr. Richard Lee.
John was then 17 years old. We know this because he gave an affidavit in 1663 in which he stated he was then thirty years old. Many of John's descendants have long questioned his whereabouts before his arrival in Northumberland county, Virginia. Where was he born? Who were his parents? When did he arrive in the Colonies? It is believed that he came from England and some of his descendants have made numerous trips to England hoping to find the answers to their questions. Unfortunately, their findings only added more questions when it was found that several Garner families in England during the early 17th Century were found to have sons named John who were close in age to our John.
Now descendants were faced with the task of determining for themselves which researcher had found John's parents and most have narrowed the possibilities to two couples - Thomas Garner who married Mary Lacye on 21 Oct. 1631 at St. Dunston's, Canterbury, Kent Co., England, and Richard Garner of Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, who married a woman known to us only as Kathryn. Richard and Kathryn had a son, John, who was baptized in St. Chad, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England on 2 Sept. 1634. Of interest is the fact that Shrop-shire is in west central England near Wales and Kathryn Garner was referred to, at the time of her death, as being "a Welshwoman". (A recent and thought provoking discussion about John Garner and his parents can be found on genforum.com, 28 Jan. 2005 - 10 Feb. 2005, as other descendants continued their search for John's parents.) I never considered searching for more information about our 7th Gr-grandfather, John Garner. I was content with learning about my ancestors from John and Susanna's youngest son, Thomas, leading down through the generations to my mother Ruth Garner Smith. However, that changed in January, 2005, when I received an email from another Garner descendant who had some interesting questions that she hoped I could answer.
During my search for the answers to her questions, I soon found myself intrigued by the early history of Colonial Virginia and, specifically, in the history of those persons who had touch the lives of a Richard and John Garner who were listed as being "sponsored" by William Farrar at Farrar's Island, VA in 1637. The following information will be based on fact and, also, on some family legends. It is my theory of why John Garner of Farrar's Island could be the same John Garner who settled in Northumberland County (in that part which later became Westmoreland County).
I hope this is an interesting story of some of the early settlers in Colonial Virginia and hope you will enjoy reading it. Richard Garner was born about 1604 in Stanton Lacy, Shropshire, England. His father, John Garner (c 1579 - 24 July 1628) had married Joan Underwood (c 1582 - c 1631) about 1598/99. One descendant wrote that four other children were also born to this couple: Thomas, who was born c 1599 in Canterbury, Kent, England; Elizabeth, born c1600 in England; John Jr., born c 1601 in England; Anne Garner, born c 1603 in England. Richard married Kathryn (surname unknown) and their son, John, was baptized on 2 Sept. 1634 at St. Chad's Church, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England.
Richard was quite able to provide for his wife and young son, because, by 1636, he owned a mill and land on Wenlock Edge, a third interest in a carriage inn (The Lion) and a farm on Acton Scott which he had received out of his mother's dowry. We can only imagine that Richard, Kathryn, and John were a happy family.This was about to change, however, when in 1636 Kathryn was accused of witchcraft. Some descendants have written that she was accused of heresy, but a posting on genforum.com by a James Garner mentions that he (James) sent an inquiry to a reporter for the Shropshire, Shrewsbury local newspaper and the reporter "confirmed the story, saying he had written an article on the topic" of witch-craft. During my search, I learned that a person could be accused of witchcraft for many reasons. Among them were a disfigurement of the body, being present where something unusual occurred or by owning what was called a "familiar" (a spirit or demon supposed to serve a particular person, such as a black cat). It is not known why Kathryn was accused, but she was "tried by ordeal by water" and died. If an accused person died during their punish-ment, they were then said to have been found innocent, believing that God had intervened to relieve their suffering and the family was then given money for a Christian burial. If the accused survived the trial by ordeal, it was believed that they had been helped by the Devil and they were subsequently put to death, often by burning at the stake. Since Kathryn died during the ordeal, she was listed as "Kathryn Garner, Welshwoman, found innocent of Witchcraft in Trial by Water, 2 pounds for burial in Christian ground", Shropshire, England, 1636.
Richard must have been distraught with grief and anger towards those who had accused his wife of being a witch and this might have been the reason he decided to leave England with his young son, John. He sold his property, the mill and the farm he had inherited from his mother to his older brother Thomas. His third interest in the Inn he freely gave to his brother. He then booked passage for himself and his young son on a ship sailing to the Virginia Colony. I have been unable to locate a passenger list which would indicate when the two arrived in the Virginia Colony, but a Richard and John Garner were listed as being two of 40 persons "transported at his (William Farrar I) own cost to Farrar's Island, Virginia.
The listed 40 headrights entitled William Farrar I to claim 2000 acres of land. William died before the the patent to the land was granted so it was left to his eldest son, William Farrar II, by entail (inheritance of property to a specified heir so that it could not be left to anyone else). The patent to the land was recorded 11 June 1637 to "William Farrar sonne and heire to William Farrar, late of Henrico County". One should not assume that Richard and John Garner arrived in Virginia on that date. It indicates only that they were there at that time. Also, the word "transported" does not mean that they were taken directly from a ship from England, although some headrights were, but merely that they were moved from one area to another. Richard and John Garner must have remained on or near the plantation because, when Richard died in 1643, his ten year old son was left in the care of William Farrar II (b. 1626) and I suppose, due to William's young age, also in the care of William's mother, Cicely Farrar.
After Richard died, John's uncle, Thomas Garner, sent to John in care of William Farrar II "the sum of 500 pounds to pay for the education and to be the inheritance of my Cousin John Garner, orphan, ward of William Farrar, Gent. 400 pounds being the balance owed my brother, Richard Garner, for the mill and land on Wenlock Edge, and the farm in Acton Scott, which was our mother's dowry. The third interest in the Lion ( A Carriage Inn in Shrewsbury) was given me freely by my brother when he departed the Realm of England. Even so, for love I bear my brother and Cousin, I include 100 pounds to quit title to same." (My note: I have spent many hours in an unsuccessful attempt to verify this record. I have included emails of some of my searches. One should note that the term "cousin" is not necessarily the meaning we give it today but was commonly used in the early 17th Century to denote a close relative.
Why would John Garner decide to leave Farrar's Island? By 1650 he had not reached the "age of majority" to own land, which was 21 years. So far as we know, he had no relatives in Virginia. The area around Farrar's Island was fairly well settled and there was probably little opportunity or incentive to settle near there. A young lad of seventeen might also like the adventure of moving to a new area where he might later acquire his own land. Perhaps he had, after living at Farrar's Island since 1637, received his certificate for fulfilling the terms of the headright system. Perhaps Burwell, knowing of John's desire to travel with the group to the Northern Neck of Virginia, had purchased John's certificate from Farrar.
This writer had been unable to solve that mystery. However Lewis Burwell chose his head-rights or whatever reason John had for leaving Farrar's Island, it is this writer's belief in the theory that the John Garner of Farrar's Island is the same John Garner transported to Northumberland County in that part which later became Westmoreland County. And it was there that he settled, married and raised the children who became our ancestors.While my research is not absolute proof that John Garner of Farrar's Island was the John Garner transported by Lewis Burwell to Northumberland County, it seems more plausible than the theories of other descendants who feel that young John Garner left Farrar's island, tra-veling back to England c 1643 for an education due to the descendants' perceived lack of education in the Virginia Colony.
According to those same descendants, John then returned to Northumberland County in 1650, left again for England and returned in 1654 as a headright of Thomas Hobkins. I noted that listed in Hobkins' claim for land by the headright system were Thomas Broughton (who later married Susanna Keene's widowed mother), Ann Williams, Edward Dawson and Robert Burwell. What are the chances that these persons who had lived (and some owned land) in the James River area would have traveled to England and then returned, along with 21 year old John Garner, to became headrights for Hobkins? I doubt that my theory will convince Garner descendants who think otherwise, but it might make them want to search for credible proof to support their own theory.
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WILL OF JOHN GARNER
Partial - extracted/edited:
Garner, John, 22 January 1702; 1 January 1703. Sons John and Henry 800 acres of land to be divided* between them where they are now seated; Henry my chest and wearing apparel; son Vincent plantation whereon I live and land in Horn Point, my long gun and hanger and a yoke of oxen. Also one-half of money of sloop the Outcry; Vincent to pay sons Thomas and Parish 2000 lbs. tobacco and to son Benjamin 2000 lbs. tobacco at age of 21 years; son James 2000 lbs. tobacco; to daughters Mary, Susan, and Martha each a thomb ring (my note: thumb?..item not determined); wife Susan residue of estate.
* paraphrased from the original "moiety" meaning "each of two parts", and assumed equal.
This is again, partial, edited, and referencing only property. A full transcription follows which includes additional details and may also contain some minor transcription errors, the original difficult to read and appearing to contain both archaic language and spellings.
Note that although slavery was now common in the colonies, no slaves are noted here, which implies that labor on John's plantation was provided by primarily him and his sons, plus his recorded indentured servants.
Unfortunately, what the "residue of estate" left to Susanna Keene Garner was is unclear, but land itself is not specifically noted.
Full will of John Garner - Westmoreland Co. Virginia, Deeds & Wills Book 3, page 153 - Will dated Jan 22, 1702, proved May 26, 1702, recorded Jan 1, 1703:
In the name of God, Amen, I, John Garner being sick and weak of body, but of perfect memory and understanding do give and bequeath my Soul unto God that gave it, and my body to be decently interred.
As to my worldly Estate, I give and bequeath as followth:
Item-I do give and bequeath unto my well beloved son John Garner and to his heirs forever one moiety of eight hundred and odd acres of land, also I give unto my well beloved son Henry Garner and to his heirs forever the moiety of the aforesaid eight hundred and odd acres of land to be equally divided between my said sons John and Henry Garner the said eight hundred and odd acres of land being the sand my said sons John and Henry Garner are now seated upon.
Item-I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Henry Garner my chest together with my wearing apparel.
Item-I give and bequeath unto my well beloved son Vincent Garner and heirs forever the whole plantation and land I now live on together with the lands adjoining. Also I give unto my said son Vincent and to his heirs a parcel of land lying in Horn Point.
Item-I give and bequeath unto my said son Vincent Garner my long gun and my hanger and a yoke of oxen. Also my will is that my said son Vincent Garner hath the one half of what is got of the money of the sloop which is called the Outcry.
Item-I do will and appoint and order my said son Vincent Garner, his heirs, Exors and Amrs to pay unto my son Thomas Garner his heirs or assigns the sum of two thousand pounds of good tobacco in cask. I do will and appoint my said son Vincent Garner his heirs or assigns to pay unto my son Parish Garner his heirs or assigns the sum of two thousand pounds of good tobacco in cask.
Item-I do will and appoint my said son Vincent Garner his heirs or assigns to pay unto my son Benjamin Garner his heirs or assigns the sum of two thousand pounds of good tobacco in cask, to be paid unto my said son Benjamin Garner when he shall be one and twenty years old.
Item-I will and appoint my said son Vincent Garner his heirs or assigns to pay unto my son James Garner his heirs or assigns the sum of two thousand pounds of good tobacco in cask to be paid unto my son James Garner when he shall come to the age of one and twenty.
Item-I give and bequeath unto my well beloved daughters, Mary, Susan and Martha each of them a thomb ring and also my will is that my well beloved wife to see them paid.
Item-I give and bequeath unto my well beloved wife Susan all the rest of my Estate as Goods and Chattels moveables and unmoveables and do make my said loving wife Susan the sole Executor of this my last will and testament, willing all my due debts to be paid, revoking all other wills and testimonies, this my last will and testament, also my will is that my well beloved wife Susan her heirs or Executors pay the one half of the tobacco which is given to my said sons being four thousand, the 22nd day of Jan, 1702.
John Garner (seal)
Signed, sealed in the presence of us: William Gardner, Jno. Williams, Wm. Moore, West-moreland County. At a Court held for the said county the 26th day of May. The last will and testament of John Garner dec'd, the within subscriber was proved by the oath of Wm. Gardner, and a probate thereof granted to Susan Garner, Executrix, therein named. Testl 1.A. Westcomb C.C. Com. Rd. Recordity. Prime Die Jany.1703
Children of John and Susan (As named in will)
1. Mary Garner 1662-1726
2. John Garner 1663-1713
3. Henry Garner 1664-1745
4. Martha Garner 1665-1726
5. Vincent Garner 1666-1710
6. Thomas Garner I 1669-1726
7. Benjamin Garner 1670-1726
8. James Garner 1672-1726
9. Parish Garner 1674-1718
10. Martha Garner 1676-1726
11. Susan Garner 1679-1701
Thomas Richard Garner (The Immigrant)
Great, Great, Great, Great, Grandfather
of Helen King Garner
Richard was born to John Garner and Joan Underwood
in Shropshire, England, John was born in 1578 and died
in 1628 in Stanton, Lacey, Shropshire England. His wife,
Joan was born to Joseph and Rebecca Shattuck in 1585. She died in Stanton, Lacey, Shropshire, England in 1630.
Richard Garner married Mary Katherine Lacye on October 24 1631 in St Dunston, Canterbury, Kent, England.
Richard Garner of Shropshire, a middle class English merchant, married Mary Katharn (Katherine) Lacye, a woman from Wales .... in 1636 Katharn Garner was declared to be a "witch" (perhaps being Welch made her a bit different). To prove her innocence she was to be drowned. She was tried by ordeal and put in a dunking stool, if she sank she was proved guilty if she floated she was proved innocent ... "Katharn, floated" She was placed in a chair & weighed down by rocks. If she survived she must be in league with the Devil & would be burned alive. She drowned prompting the Church to apologize to the family & give her a Christian burial.
Richard was then given two pounds to bury her in the public Cemetery ... otherwise she would have been buried in unhallowed ground. Richard, obviously very upset, gathered up his belongings, his baby son, "John Garner" and sailed for America. from the Book, "Garner - Keene Families of Northern Neck, Virginia" by Sudie Ritchie and Sudie Rucker Wood, 27 Dec. 1950
William Farrar, a plantation owner in the colony of Virginia sponsored both Richard and his son, John, to immigrate in 1637 to Henrico County. Virginia per "Virginia Immigrants, 1623-66"
“Jno. Garner to Wm. Farrar. The sum of 500 lbs. to pay for the education and to be the inheritance of my cousin John Garner, orphan, ward of William Farrar, Gent. 400 lbs being the balance owed my brother Richard Garner, for the mill and land on Wenlock Edge and the farm in Action Scott, which was our mother's dowry. The third interest in the Lion (a carriage inn at Shrewbury) was given me freely by my brother when he departed the Realm of England. Even so, for love I bear my brother and cousin, I include 100 lbs to quite title to same.” (Hen. C.O.B. 1643-1644, page 23)
One would only assume that if Richard, being relatively well off, had not been forced to become a widower he would probably would have not left England in disgust at that time.