JENNIE KEYES DIARY
Published in Alabama Historical Quarterly 1930
JOHN WASHINGTON KEYES was born in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama on November 25, 1825 to George and Nelly Keyes. He attended La Grange College in Alabama starting in January 1842 but was suspended the following year for fighting. He returned home before studying medicine at Louis-ville, Kentucky and entering practice with Dr. Welch in Somerville, Alabama. On November 4, 1846
J.W. Keyes married Julia L. Marcellus (1830-8/10/1877 FL), eldest daughter of Prof. Nicholas Mar-cellus and Caroline Lee Whiting Hentz, in Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama.
They had 15 children:
Ellen Keyes (m. James Henty),
Jennie Keyes (12/26/1852-10/20/1878, m. James F. Davidson),
Caroline Whiting Keyes (m. Ole Pickens),
Eula Keyes (m. John W. Coachman),
Alice Keyes (m. Warren Scott),
Julie Keyes (m. Frank Branch),
David Rebel Keyes (6/24/1865 Montgomery, m. Elizabeth Stratford 1/30/1895),
George Keyes (m. Jessie Hentz),
Jane Keyes (m. Edward Hubbs),
Anna Lucy Keyes.
After studying (1849) in Cincinnati, in 1850 he was awarded a degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Ohio Dental College, and a Doctor of Medicine from the Medical College of Ohio. He practiced in Florida in the early 1850s, before moving (1857) to Montgomery, Alabama where he practiced den-tistry, and occasionally published in dental journals.
He served in Company A, 1st Battalion of Hilliard's Legion at Mobile, and as surgeon of the 17th Ala-bama Regiment. He also practiced surgery at St. Mary's Hospital in Montgomery and elsewhere. The citizens of Montgomery awarded him a horse for his service.
From 1867 to 1873 the Keyes family lived in the Gunter Colony at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before returning to Montgomery.
His daughter, Jenny Rutledge Keyes (ca. 1856-1879) who married James E. Davidson, and an older sister Eula who married Dr. John Coachman. Dr. John W. Keyes of Iola, FL married Miss Marianne Hentz of Alabama on September 18, 1878 at the home of Sr. Samuel J. Withers in Mooresville, Alaba-ma, with Rev. McDonnell performing the marriage (Huntsville Democrat 10/2/1878).
He then moved to Calhoun County, Florida where he grew oranges. Dr. Keyes who was 6' tall and weighted 180 pounds once captured an 8' shark without assistance. J.W. Keyes died on November 27, 1892 near Wewahitchka, Florida.
When pioneers first came to the territory now known as Wewahitchka, they were welcomed by Native-Americans, but their resistance grew when their land and hunting grounds were threatened. As a result of this turmoil, many lives were lost. General Andrew Jackson made three trips to the Florida Territory. One such visit brought him to the Wewa-lola area, where he took advantage of the interpretation skills of pioneering George Richards and his family. Thomas Richards later served as an Indian Agent and, along with his brother Andrew and several others, built a fort on the banks of the Dead Lakes. In 1872, Dr. John Keyes moved to the Wewa area and planted pecan, pear, and orange trees. Dr . Keyes referred to the two lakes as “Alice” and “Julia” after his two daughters. Around 1875, residents decided to call the town Wewahitchka, a seminole word meaning “water eyes,” in honor of the lakes in the center of the settlement.
(These excerpts come from the article written by Peter A. Brannon in the The Alabama Historical Quarterly Summer -1930)
A Southern Colonization Society for those desiring to move to Brazil was formed. Among its membership were: Dr. Hugh A. Shaw, Major Isaac Boles, Mr. B. C. Bryan, Mr. William M. Williams, Mr. T. B. Reese, Mr. Harrison S. Strom, Dr. T. J. Teague, John L. Nicholson, William F. Duriscoe, Benjamin F. Mays, Henry G. Arthur, D. F. McEwin, Thomas J. Davis, S. J. M. Clark, Capt. Tillman Watson, Jr., W. J. Gardner, Charles Glover, John Sentell Esq. Capt. W. H. Brunson, Dr. W. D. Jennings, Mr. G. W. Morgan, John R. Carwile, Major Robert Meriwether
The Officers were:
President – Major Joseph Abney
Vice-President – Colonel D. L. Shaw
Secretary – Colonel A. P. Butler
Corresponding Secretary – Major John E. Bacon
Treasurer – Thomas B. Reese
It is not recorded who of this list went to Brazil. Thomas J. Adams and Hiram Q. Adams went down with Colonel Meriwether, but did not remain very long.
Diary of Mrs. Julia Keyes
Jennie Rutledge Keyes, the second child of Dr. Keyes, married James A. Davidson, Jr. in Montgomery Feb-ruary 8, 1875. She died in 1879. She was the grandchild of the celebrated novelist, Caroline Lee Hentz. Her
Diary is frank and expressive and at the same time, bubbling with that romantic spirit which the environment of that cultured grandmother would suggest. Mr. Davidson resided, (1930), with his daughter, Mrs. Fitzgerald Salter, in the city of Montgomery No picture of the life of the Americans in Brazil, can be more vividly painted than to quote, just as they are set out, the volumes which are affectionately referred to by the members of the families, as “Jennie’s Diaries.”
The first volume includes a statement of several pages made by Mrs. Julia Louisa Keyes, wife of Dr. John Washington Keyes a dentist, who married the daughter of Professor Nicholas M. and Caroline Lee Hentz.
Certain fly-leaf notations in these volumes, made by Jennie, give pertinent information, and they, too, are used here. A statement of much value is one prepared on board the Barque Wavelet on their return home in 1870. It concludes the story.
Dr. John Washington Keyes was born at Athens, Limestone County, Alabama, November 24, 1825, and died in Wewahitchka, Florida, November 27, 1892. He studied medicine and graduated from the Cincinnati Dental College and practiced dentistry in Montgomery. He entered the Confederate Army as a member of a Cavalry Company under Captain, later General, James H. Clanton. He was subsequently a 2nd Lieutenant of Company E, 1st Battalion, Hilliard’s Legion and later became a 2nd Lieutenant of Company F of the 60th Alabama Infantry Regiment. He was subsequently Surgeon of the 17th Infantry Regiment. In 1867 the family moved to Brazil. After their return to Alabama, in 1870, he removed to Florida.
John Keyes (32) second :son of Captain John Keyes, m. Catherine Groves, December iv3(), 18()4 [a miss-print in the Kvyea history— probably 1806]. 'His. wife dn-d June 20, 1872. Their children: / • .
428. William Groves,,hi February 1, 1808.
429 Nancy, d fit six years. '.
430 John Talbott, b. September 10. 1811.
431. Elizabeth, resided ir Canada.
432. Washington, d in Cumberland Conn * • . ty, Tennessee. February 13. 1838.
433. Campbell, residence in Canada. .•.; '.t: ;ii.:-434. Robin, residence in Tennessee.
435. Joseph, residence Waller County, Ga. . -.r - 436. Hiram, d. in Gentry Cou'nty, Missouri :ii . 437.'Martha, resides in Canada.
'William Groves Keyes (428) moved with his parents from Washington County, Virginia, to HankinsCounty, Tennessee, w!i ;re he ro. Evaline Wright, and had one son, Thomas Lilbnrn. Then moved to Green County, Tennessee, where his wife d. September 21. 1859. William m. second time, November 20, 1861, Harriet, daugh. of Charles Cook, by whom ho had two sons and one daugher. Thomas Lilburn Keyes was b. Septem-ber 17, 183H; m. September 25, 1859, Elizabeth Nease, of Cocke C ounty, Tenn essee. They have four child-ren:
438. Cyrus Hannibal.
439. William Perez.
440. Sarah Evaline.
441. Sabrina Belle.
John (430) m. Lucy Josephine Childress, b. April, 1819,—a niece of General Edward Gaines He has in his possession the old family Bible bequeathed by Captain John to the eldest John in the family, snccessively, from which book many records relating to the family have been taken. Resides in Bristol, Tennessee. Children:
442. Mary Virginia, b. February 12, 1844.
443. Theron or Theodore, b. Sept. 28, 1845.
444. Letitia Catherine, b. March 13, 1847; d. November 18, 1857.
445. Martha Elizabeth, b. September 2,1848.
, 446. George A., b. March 27.1850; d. June 30, 1858.
447. John Matthew, b. December 7. 1851; d. Decem bar 10, 1857.
George Keyes (35), 4th son of Captain John, was b. in Washington County, Virginia. Early in life he and his brother Washington (36) removed to Limestone County, Alabama, where they merchandised and planted in company. He served at one time as captain of a volunteer company under General Jackson, and later was
elected aud served as general of the brigade of uiilitin in his military district in Alabama. He m. in Sullivan County, Tennessee, November 16, 1820, Nellie, dau of Robert and Crockett Kutledge, and the young couple made their way to Alabama on horseback. K'obert Kutledge was a son of William Kutledge. of County Lyson, and Nellie Gambel, of County Carau, Ireland, and grandson of George Kutledge. George Keyes d. in Lime-stone County June 13, 1833. Nellie, hia wife, b. March I, 1797, d. October 22. H34. Children:
448. Wade, b. October JO. 1821.
449. Martha Louisa, b. September 23, 1823.
450. John Washington, b. March 25, 182.).
451. Jane Charlotte, b. November 16, 1827.
452. George Presley, b. September 8, 1829.
453. Husau. b. July 1. 1832; d. June 29, 1848.
Wade Ke}*es (448) was a studeut at the University of Virginia in the session of 1837-38. He left'the next session on account of ill health mid deaths in the family. He studied law with William kictiardsmt. Esq , subsequently joining a law clas-» taught by Daniel Coleman, Miki finally graduated from the law department of Transylvania University, at Lexington, Kentucky. In 1842 he sailed to Europe, traveled the continent and in England and Ireland, returning in the autumn of 1843. Kemoved to Florida in 1848 and practiced law in Jackson County, in that state. While residing there he published two legal volumes which attracted much attention. In 1851 he returned to Alabama and continued the practice of law in Montgomery, then the capital of the state. He was elected chancellor of the Southern chance
There were also five children who died in infancy.
Martha Louisa Keyes (449) m. Henry C. Jones, October 13, 1844. Mr. Jones has been several times in the legislature, and was a member of the Confederatecongress, and is now state attorney for his judicial circuit. Children:
457. William Stratton, died from wounds received us a Confederate soldier in the battle at Franklin, Tennessee.
458. Martha, m. Melville Allen, of Marion County, Alabama.
459. George, a lawyer in Lauddele County, Alabama.
460. Ella Rives.
462. Jennie Keyes.
463 Martha Balling.
464. Robert Young.
465. Wade K<?yes.
John Washington (450) entered Lagrange College, Alabama, January, 1842, where he was suspended in 1843 for fighting. Returning home he studied medicine, attended medical lectures at Louisville, Kentucky, and commenced the practice of medicine in partnership with Dr. Welch in Somerville, Alabama. On the 4th of November, 1846, he m. Julia L., eldest dau. of Prof. Nicholas Marcellus and Caroline Hentz, in Tuscogee, Alabama. They have had 15 children whose names we have not received. In 1849 he studied in Cincinnati and in 1850 took the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Ohio Dental College, and the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the Mediia1
College of Ohio. Dr. Keyes was for a time in Florida and in 1857 removed to Montgomery, Alabama, devoting himself to the practice of dentistry, to the literature of which profession he was an occasional contributor. He was in the Confederate army at Mobile, In Co. A of the Battallion of Hilliard's Legion and as a surgeon of the 12th Alabama Regiment. He also acted as surgeon in St. Mary's Hospital, in Montgomery, and elsewhere. The citizens of Montgomery presented him with a fine horse as a mark of esteem. After the war he went to Brazil. Returned, and in 1873 bought land in Calhoun County, Florida, and engaged in the culture of oran-ges. Dr. Keyes is six feet tall, weighs 180, with great physical strength, as may be seen from the fact of his having captured a shark 8 feet long, without the aid of man or weapons.
Jane C. Keyes (451) m. John D. Rathen, January 26, 1842. He is a lawyer, has been a circuit-judge, speaker of the House of Representatives, president of the Senate of the General Assembly of Alabama, and a member of the constitutional convention of 1875. Has also been president of the Memphis & Ch.'irleston Railroad Co. Resides at Tuscumbia, Colbert Count}', Alabama. Mrs. Jane Rathen died in 1853. Children:
466. George T., connected with the Memphis & Tennessee Railroad.
467. Silas P., lawyer, Decatur, Alabama.
468. Ellen Rutledge, resides at Tampa, Fldrida.
George Presley (452) graduated at Lagrange College, Alabama, at the age of 18 years
Albert G (472) was educated at the University of Mississippi, at Oxford In the late war he belonged to the 28th regiment of cavalry, was wounded in the charge through Franklin, Tennessee, under Van Dorn, was taken to the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, and died there May 23, 1863. He left a dau. whose death occurred soon after his own.
Bettie Keyes (473) m. the 1st of August, 1851, her cousin, Joseph Keyes,a merchant of New Orleans, and had four children, Bettie and Lillie, and two boys who died in infancy. Bettie m. Frank Andrews, of Warsaw, Franklin Parish, Louisiana, and has one child. Lillie is the wife of Charles Hunter, Bolivar, Mississippi. Joseph Keyes d. July, 1857. In 1864 Bettie [his widowj m. A. VV. Hunter, of Claiborne County, Mississippi. He was killed through mistake, May 20, 1872. Bettie m. the third time, May 12, 187S, Judge William Cham-bers, of Chambers County, Texas, where she ,now resides. .,
Frank W. (474) graduated at the University of Mississippi, Oxford, was in the 25th regiment, infantry, was made captain, was taken prisoner with Floyd's Brigade at Fort Donelson, and remained in prison at Sand-usky Island seven months, afterwards exchanged. A Southern paper of that period speaks of him as the youngest of a noble family of brothers who moved into Carroll County a few years before the war, all whole-souled and generous, and superior to anything mean or sordid or base. The same paper speaks of him as a splendid soldier. After the war Captain Keyesreturned to Carrollton to the practice of law.
The Coachman Family has over 168 years of tradition in Dentistry, and is currently in the 6th generation of dentists. The origin of the Coachman family coincides with the beginning of Dentistry as a profession itself, in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1849, John Keyes Washington, already graduated in Medicine from the Medical College of Ohio, United States, received his degree of Dental Surgeon from Ohio College of Dental Surgery, starting to contribute significantly to the development of scientific literature in dentistry. After the Civil War in the Unites States, from 1861 to 1865, when John served as an officer surgeon in the Army, the family decided to move to Brazil. They settled in Rio de Janeiro, where they began their activities in den-istry, which were greatly enriched with their important contributions, marked by the pursuit of accuracy and clinical excellence since then.
In 1874, John William Coachman received “Dental Office” title from the Brazilian Imperial Government and, together with his brothers Charles Whiting Keyes and William Baldwin Keyes, he began what would become a tradition for the family in the country: to lead and increasingly improve this important field of Medicine. They have excelled in the field, which resulted in serving the Emperor Dom Pedro II, thus be-oming close to the palace for many years.
Later, headed by John William and his brothers-in-law, the Coachman & Cia. clinic, located at Rua Ouvidor, 130 in Rio de Janeiro, was consolidated in the country as a reference of commitment to quality. John Wil-iam´s sons continued the tradition and graduated in Dentistry. Hentz, one of his heirs, moved to São Paulo bringing with him the legacy of the Coachmans. The next generation did the same: graduated from the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, Alfredo and Charles began to build the family’s admired career in the city.
The Coachmans have become known in the community for their accuracy, quality and for the longevity of their work in gold inlays, with own innovative formulations for the time. Also considered innovative in the 50s was the model of working as a clinical staff, with their own lab and a property designed for this purpose, located outside the city center.
The fifth generation of the family is represented by Carlos, Robert and Carlos Eduardo, also graduated at the University of São Paulo.. In 1994, Robert establishes the Keyes-Coachman Institute of Cosmetic Den-istry and Oral Health, with leading role in the introduction of modern cosmetic restorative dentistry in Brazil. Events, symposia and workshops with international teaching staff promoted the integration between clinical and commercial academic sectors, allowing the introduction of these new concepts that have revol-tionized restorative dentistry. Carlos was also devoted to spreading these new concepts. By conducting innovative workshops on main Brazilian congresses and using high technology, the brothers performed live procedures that were later projected on large screens for the audience, through intra and extraoral micro cameras. Carlos, who was also a pioneer in the use of Laser Beam and the application of anthroposophic Medicine knowledge in Dentistry cooperated, in 1999, with the founding of the Brazilian Academy of Cos-etic Dentistry, and was appointed its 1st President, a position he held for two years.
Yet at the beginning of this new era, Dr. Robert conceived the project of the existing Well Clinic, a trans-isciplinary orofacial clinical center that includes the participation of his sons, Dr. Christian Coachman–expert in cosmetic restorative dentistry, renowned international speaker and recognized ceramic artist; Dr. Francis Gray Coachman–experienced surgeon and specialist in restorative techniques over implants; and Robert´s daughter-in-law, Dr. Tatiana Navarro de Macedo Coachman, right hand and specialist in Dentistry and Cosmetic Restorative Dentistry.
Focused on dentistry, but with strong concern with integration with all clinical and therapeutic areas, Well Clinic also has numerous other renowned professionals in virtually all specialties, taking upon itself the commitment of carrying on this remarkable tradition included in the 1994 Guinness Book of Records as the oldest family dedicated to dentistry worldwide.
At this new clinic, the Coachmans are organized around the goal of not only integrating several specialties of Dentistry, but all of them to Medicine and its many supplementary areas. An approach of rescue and syn-hesis that can, again, join science, art and all-time traditions on the eternal pursuit of full health. They also created the 1st Smile Design Center in the world and, consequently, DSD (Digital Smile Design), considered a conceptual protocol that offers awesome advantages to the patient and has become a world reference.
Below is an excerpt from Jennie R. Keyes diaries printed in The Alabama Historical Quarterly Summer -1930
Steamship “Marmion” April 27th,1867 - Saturday morn
On our way to Brazil! The long-anticipated voyage began-Twelve days since we sailed & I have not yet begun a Diary-Not because I have been disappointed -neither has it been from sea-sickness. This great terror of the passengers, I have been spared almost entirely, but responsibilities & varied cares, which of a necessity fol-ow me, have prevented my setting down a thought.
So many I have had that were pleasant & grateful I shall ever bear in my heart the memory of them. Ever feel thankful that we were cast with such delightful company-Gentlemen whose manners are so engaging that any circle might be improved by their presence. Not from politeness & delicate attention to ladies alone as these can be assumed on occasion, but we believe that these are the signs of the true gentleman which can not be mistaken.
Some whose faces we can trust and whose kind forbearance and gentle consideration of ***** children will, at once, win our confidence. Next to those whom our Savior has “suffered to come unto Him” should be those who can dive down into their hearts, inquiring what they need & what they can administer to their comforts-and for those who care not for these helpless ones, remembering not the days of their innocence, let us draw a sigh of intense pity. No domestic happiness will be theirs. They are ignorant of the kindest affections of the human heart & “home” has never any charm for them.
Will we ever forget the parting from our Home & from those we love
Will we ever forget the parting from our Home & from those we love? I think not. It is pleasant to believe that kind hearts, beating so far away, are with us on our voyage, praying to our common Father for our safety and prosperity. It is pleasant also to look forward to the day when we can open a door of hospitable welcome to some that will follow us. If our journey continues as pleasant as it has begun, how much we will have to be thankful for—How earnest we should be to return thanks by our daily actions—and prepare our-selves for another home, not made with hands.
On the morning of the 16th (April) we left N. Orleans—a clear sky above & hopeful hearts around us still we cannot say we were not met by disappointments in regard to our “quarters” between decks.
We knew nothing of the accommodation of an emigrant ship and consequently did not see as we do now that we are far better off in many respects than we might have expected—The rough fare if we keep our health, will never be remembered with thoughts of regret. We will only think of all that has been so very delightful.
Passed out of the Gulf on a moonlight night
We passed out of the Gulf on a lovely moonlight night. The waters as smoothe as a lake—crossed the bar safely between two vessels that were stuck, lying in wait for the rising of the tide— so much so good” we thought. On rounding Florida point we had some clouds, rough water, in consequence of a little blow, and some sea-sickness amongst the passengers. We watched the light-house with some interest, also the faint outline of a home of “Wreckers” who were doubtless watching the red lights on our masts with equal con-cern.
On the 18th we passed the Tortugas. The night previous to the blow—on the 20th passed Great Isaac’s, saw a few rocks and a striped light-house, about breakfast hour—Sunday got into the Atlantic—the rolling waves brought more sea-sickness amongst the passengers. In our family we had more cases with the smaller child-ren, Julia, Charlie and Reb—I suffered some with my head. Our Captain had services on deck. Our two min-isters being sick, he distributed a number of new Episcopal prayer books and it was with great satisfaction we saw the passengers, all that were able, go out to participate.
Most of our time we spent on deck
I think we have a good Captain. Prim, considerate—& seems to know well his duties and his course. Most of our time we spent on deck and we found our Captain very agreeable in conversation. With a rough manner and stern treatment to his crew, he was respected For several days the water remained rough—On Wed. we were annoyed by the appearance on board of a case of varioloid, very slight, but a cause of uneasiness, part-icularly to the Mothers of young families —Passed Porto Rico by night—Those that were up said that the streets, lighted by gas, could be readily distinguished and the scene very beautiful.
One or two small fights occurred
Sunday—28th — Water rough again—
Reverend Ballard Dunn held service on deck. One or two small fights occurred amongst the men. One dutchman who leads a blind man much like him,—probably his brother—had some rough handling, his eye blackened, an uncouth, unpolished set of individuals—If it were not for being obliged to be near some such people as these all the time, we would be more comfortable, So entirely different are they from beings we are accustomed to mingle with, but we have only those to look at and enough of a better class to associate with. Dear me! if we had not been thrown with some pleasant and agreeable people, what a sad & lonely time we might have had.Beautiful weather continued—lasted all the way. Our Captain said he had never made a more beautiful passage—that he had crossed the ocean thirty times.
Five months later
Oct. 14th —Lake Japarana It is now nearly five months since we came to Brazil—Our voyage was happily ended by reaching the magnificent City of Rio Janeiro on a beautiful moonlight night—the 16th of May—without accident of any kind—Perhaps I will never feel again such an overpowering sense of gratitude & pleasure as when beholding those far-famed mountains & city lights. It was quite enough to repay me for a month’s discomfort on board ship *Then— our reception at the Government House—”Casa de Suade” was so gratifying.
We were a happy band of Emigrants,— felt we had reached a place of rest and among kind, generous people who had given us a welcome we had not expected. We were sheltered & fed at Government expense and fared much better than on our steamship, the food not really better but prepared in a manner to make it more palatable. The proprietor, Col. Broome, was a Confederate soldier, as kind and obliging as we could wish—and the house was a little less than a palace, with marble floors—most of the rooms having frescoed and gilded ceilings & beautifully papered walls.
Flower yards, tastily arranged with marble benches beneath vine-covered arbors. Just within the great iron-gate is a long row of those stately Palms—never before seen except in our imaginary pictures of oriental scenes. We bought fruit in abundance, at a small expense and all little delicacies which we needed and con-sidered ourselves blessed in many ways.
The Emperor came in person to pay us a visit
Two days after our arrival, the Steamship N. America came in from N. York with a large number of Emi-grants and our hotel then entertained nearly three hundred. Very soon they began to circulate. In the meantime, we received visits from Brazilians and Americans, too, by throngs. It was quite bewildering, but gratifying to know that we were the cause of so much interest. The Emperor came in person to pay us a visit and we heard that he expressed himself as being much pleased with the appearance of the Americans.
Many gathered in throngs discussing the respective merits of their separate colonies. Many acted rashly as they afterward found, coming to a conclusion. If all had gone together to one colony they probably would be there now with a flourishing town of their own making, but they did not. They scattered * * * Mr. Charles Nathans, Mr. Andrew Steel & Sons were very obliging to us. Assisted us in many ways and we will never for-get them.
Excerpts come from the article written by Peter A. Brannon in The Alabama Historical Quarterly Summer -1930 – “Embodying the Diary of Jennie R. Keyes Montgomery, Alabama. This study was made at the request of Dr. Wyatt H. Blake a zealous member of the Board of Trustees of the Alabama State Department of Archives and History since its creation in 1901
Amongst the dentists who went to Brazil during the time after the American Civil War were John William Coachman (JWC), William B Keyes and Charles Keyes.These two interlinked families are said to have founded a whole dynasty of Brazilian dental surgeons (reportedly about 120 to date!)JWC in particular was at one time dentist to the Imperial Royal Family, living and working in Rio de Janeiro and up in Petropolis (the Emperor's summer residence) - he then later practices in São Paulo, where it is believed he became a Brazilian citizen.
JWC married Eula Hentz Keyes, the daughter of Dr John Washington Keyes (JWK).She had a sister Jenny Rutledge Keyes, who kept diaries between 1867 and 1870, detailing her emigration and life in Brazil.They are preserved in the State of Alabama Department of Archives & History and some were published as "Our Life in Brazil" in the Alabama Historical Quarterly vol 28 No 3 & 4, 1966.
I am not sure exactly when JWC first travelled to Brazil.In Betty Antunes de Oliveira's "Movimento de Passageiros Norte-Americanos no Porto do Rio de Janeiro 1865-1890", taken from Rio newspaper reports, the earliest specific mention of JWC is his arrival with his wife from New York on the ss SOUTH AMERICA on 19 Sep 1873 (although a "João Gomes Coachman" had sailed for Baltimore on 18 Feb 1872 on the AQUIDNECK -perhaps a misprint?).Thereafter he made visits to the US, sometimes with his family, in at least 1877, 1880, 1881, 1884 and 1886.
JWK, on the other hand, certainly arrived in Brazil with his family, including Jenny, in J Ballard Dunn's group of migrants in the MARMION on 12 May 1867.Ongoing research into the emigrant voyages of the 1860s may yet reveal more.
JWC was an active Methodist, recorded as attending Annual Conferences of the Methodist Church in Brazil at least between 1887 and 1897.He died 10 Jul 1917, though I do not know where.
A few more bits and pieces:
John Keyes Coachman [son of JWC?] born 1878, died 1940
Mollie Steagall Coachman [wife of James J Coachman] born 28 aug 1885, died 8 Mar 1953
[both the above buried in the British Cemetary, Gamboa, Rio de Janeiro
James J Coachman [son of JWC?] married Mollie Steagall 26 Jun 1902.
There are certainly lots of Coachmans around in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.If you search the online telephone directories at http://www.probusca.com.brhttp://www.probusca.com.br -put Coachman in the "Nome" box and check the "São Paulo" and "Telemar" boxes (but not "BrasilTelecom"), you will get their phone numbers and street addresses (without CEP/zipcodes).There's even a John William Coachman in São Paulo!
#L-R Eula Hertz, nee' Keyes,Coachman, Capt Johnson, Ellie Keyes, John William Coachman
Eula Hertz,nee' Keyes, Coachman wearing a cameo (* small picture, on a pin) of husband John William Coachman
Eula Hertz Keyes
John William Coachman
John William Coachman
John and Eula Keyes Coachman with family
Coachman;John William Coachman Dr. Birth 19 April 1845 in Decatur Co., Georga,USA . Death 10 Jul 1918 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo,
L-R James Joseph Coachman.(*James Joseph Coachman;Birth 30 Apr 1873 in Montgomery, Alabama Death 24 Jun 1950 in Brazil) , John Keyes Coachman (*John Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 Jul 1878 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Death 1940) Kendrick Powel Coachman,(*Kendrick Powell Coachman;Birth 24 Mar 1895 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Death;1953) Hentz Keyes Coachman (*Hentz Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 July 1874 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Death 7 July 1934 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil )
Coachman, Fordham and Keyes family members; #Seated: Leon Fordham, Eula Helen Coachman Standing (l-r): Eulyn Fordham, Kendrick Powell Coachman, a Hentz cousin?, Carie Hentz, Eula Hentz Keyes (Coachman), John William Coachman at Victoria Rd., Asheville - North Carolina
Regiment: Batty B Milton Light Artillery Battery Florida
Date of Organization:5 Mar 1863
Muster Date:26 Apr 1865
Regiment Type:Light Artillery
Regiment Number:Batty B Milton
Battles:Fought on 20 Feb 1864 at Olustee, FL.
Fought on 28 Feb 1864 at Camp Finegan, FL.
Fought on 4 Mar 1865 at Natural Bridge, FL.
Fought on 6 Mar 1865 at Natural Bridge, FL.
Regiment History:MILTON ARTILLERY.
The Milton Light Artillery was raised in Apalachicola in 1861 by J. L. Dunham with Lieutenants Abell senior 1st, Bull junior 1st, Stephens senior 2nd and Rambo junior 2nd; with six guns, three 12 lb. brass rifle pieces and two 12 lb. Howitzers.
In the spring of 1862, the Battery was ordered to East Florida and camped near the Three Mile Branch, Jacksonville (Camp Finnegan). The company took part in the fight at St. Johns Bluff and the several engagements around Jacksonville.
In the summer of 1863, the Milton Light Artillery was divided. Captain Dunham kept four of the guns, Abell was made Captain and was given the other two guns and two more were furnished him, making another four-gun battery. Captain Dunham retained two of the Lieutenants, Bull and Rambo. Mortimer Bates was elected junior 2nd Lieutenant.
Only a few months passed when Lieutenant Bull was killed by one Pickett in Lake City; Bates then came in command of the left section of one Battery. George Hines succeeded in the position of junior 2nd Lieutenant.
The section Bates commanded took part in the fight at Darby's Hill (MeClenney). A part of the company took part in the battle of Olustee, Natural Bridge, and Bates' section did effective service on St. Johns, aiding in capturing the Columbine and doing much damage to the Ottawa and another steamer at Horse Landing on the St. Johns.
The Battery was a fine one and had it been in Virginia or in the Western Army would have made a name that the State would have been proud of; as it was both companies, A and B of the Milton Artillery, did splendid service and are entitled to as much credit as their more fortunate comrades who won honors at
the battlefront in the great contests of the war.
Source: Soldiers of Florida in the ... Civil War ... page 303
the Kaiser family
in Tuskegee, Alabama, Julia Hentz married John Washington Keyes of Florida in 1846. In 184950, he studied dentistry of medicine in Ohio and earned a degree of Dr. of surgery. In 1857, the couple moved to Montgomery. Like his wife, he had Massachusetts roots: his paternal grandfather, John Wade Keyes 1752 – 1839, was from the Boston area. His paternal grandmother, Luisa Talbert 1756 – 1836, from Alexandria, Virginia, was the niece of US Pres. James Monroe. Early in life, John’s father, George, moved from Virginia to limestone County, Alabama, where he and his brothers engaged in merchandising. In 1820, George married Nellie Rutledge 1799 – 1834 of Solomon County, Tennessee, a niece of Davy Crockett.
Yankee soldiers were encamped by the Keyes family garden fence in July 1865, John was ready to decamp to Brazil. The doctor intent on leaving the country and like many others had his heart set on Brazil, Julia wrote to her cousin, "but I am not willing to go until I see someone who has been there and can assure me that our condition will be bettered, in every respect, I am entirely dissatisfied with this regime, but I must know what I am doing before taking such a journey." John was more emphatic: I am going to Brazil wherever anyone else goes or not— I do not feel that I am living here--- only camping--- I can make money here but I must get to where I can breathe.
John Washington Keith was attracted to count's settlements in part because he wanted to quit dentistry. Joining them there were 20 families, and more in all, including the McIntyre’s concerns of William Lowndes Yancey. When the colony failed by mid-1868, keys moved his family to Dixie island in Rio one of our day,s and into a new 16 room home in the city itself by May 1869. Their eldest daughter, you the, and her husband, Dr. John W coachman, were already in Rio where they had settled upon arrival. Coachman, who was also a dentist, had established a practice by the time his in-laws arrived from the lake.
Julia Luisa Hintz keys hated the Rio dolce but enjoyed and admired Rio the food, the theater, the opera, and even the sewage system. Once established in the city, Julia was delighted with Brazil: you cannot know how much we talk about all our friends and neighbors to see them, but I do not care to return to the states. I am so well satisfied with this climate and I believe we become settled we can live much more economically than their, coming to the matter of fact--- and that is a consideration, you know, Julia’s emphasis on the cost-of-living undoubtedly stems from the fact that she and John had 15 children. By 1870, however, a portion of the keys family did go back to Alabama. In the letter to a cousin notifying her of their impending return, Jenny Keyes wrote: immigration has ceased, and we rarely ever make new claimants. Her father attended a counterstatement check-- immigration has not ceased--- quite a number came on the last steamer and many more are expected to follow. I don’t want to return and but for the children would not--- make it off the two months or two years. The coachman said Charles Whiting key( the eldest son) remained in Brazil, at least into the 1890s, and in Charles’s case into the early 1900s, living variously in Rio, São Paulo, the topless, the location of the Emperor summer palace in the cooler mountains above Rio.