JOHN WASHINGTON KEYES
JOHN WASHINGTON KEYES was born in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama on November 25, 1825 to George and Nelly Keyes. He attended La Grange College in Alabama starting in January 1842 but was suspended the following year for fighting. He returned home before studying medicine at Louis-ville, Kentucky and entering practice with Dr. Welch in Somerville, Alabama. On November 4, 1846
J.W. Keyes married Julia L. Marcellus (1830-8/10/1877 FL), eldest daughter of Prof. Nicholas Mar-cellus and Caroline Lee Whiting Hentz, in Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama.
After studying (1849) in Cincinnati, in 1850 he was awarded a degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Ohio Dental College, and a Doctor of Medicine from the Medical College of Ohio. He practiced in Florida in the early 1850s, before moving (1857) to Montgomery, Alabama where he practiced den-tistry, and occasionally published in dental journals.
He served in Company A, 1st Battalion of Hilliard's Legion at Mobile, and as surgeon of the 17th Ala-bama Regiment. He also practiced surgery at St. Mary's Hospital in Montgomery and elsewhere. The citizens of Montgomery awarded him a horse for his service.
From 1867 to 1873 the Keyes family lived in the Gunter Colony at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before returning to Montgomery.
His daughter, Jenny Rutledge Keyes (ca. 1856-1879) who married James E. Davidson, and an older sister Eula who married Dr. John Coachman. Dr. John W. Keyes of Iola, FL married Miss Marianne Hentz of Alabama on September 18, 1878 at the home of Sr. Samuel J. Withers in Mooresville, Alaba-ma, with Rev. McDonnell performing the marriage (Huntsville Democrat 10/2/1878).
He then moved to Calhoun County, Florida where he grew oranges. Dr. Keyes who was 6' tall and weighted 180 pounds once captured an 8' shark without assistance. J.W. Keyes died on November 27, 1892 near Wewahitchka, Florida.
When pioneers first came to the territory now known as Wewahitchka, they were welcomed by Native Americans, but their resistance grew when their land and hunting grounds were threatened. As a result of this turmoil, many lives were lost. General Andrew Jackson made three trips to the Florida Territory. One such visit brought him to the Wewa-lola area, where he took advantage of the interpretation skills of pioneering George Richards and his family. Thomas Richards later served as an Indian Agent and, along with his brother Andrew and several others, built a fort on the banks of the Dead Lakes. In 1872, Dr. John Keyes moved to the Wewa area and planted pecan, pear, and orange trees. Dr . Keyes referred to the two lakes as “Alice” and “Julia” after his two daughters. Around 1875, residents decided to call the town Wewahitchka, a Seminole word meaning “water eyes,” in honor of the lakes in the center of the settlement.
the Keyes family
in Tuskegee, Alabama, Julia Hentz married John Washington Keyes of Florida in 1846. In 184950, he studied dentistry of medicine in Ohio and earned a degree of Dr. of surgery. In 1857, the couple moved to Montgomery. Like his wife, he had Massachusetts roots: his paternal grandfather, John Wade Keyes 1752 – 1839, was from the Boston area. His paternal grandmother, Luisa Talbert 1756 – 1836, from Alexandria, Virginia, was the niece of US Pres. James Monroe. Early in life, John’s father, George, moved from Virginia to Limestone County, Alabama, where he and his brothers engaged in merchandising. In 1820, George married Nellie Rutledge 1799 – 1834 of Solomon County, Tennessee, a niece of Davy Crockett.
Yankee soldiers were encamped by the Keyes family garden fence in July 1865, John was ready to decamp to Brazil. The doctor intent on leaving the country and like many others had his heart set on Brazil, Julia wrote to her cousin, "but I am not willing to go until I see someone who has been there and can assure me that our condition will be bettered, in every respect, I am entirely dissatisfied with this regime, but I must know what I am doing before taking such a journey." John was more emphatic: I am going to Brazil wherever anyone else goes or not— I do not feel that I am living here--- only camping--- I can make money here but I must get to where I can breathe.
John Washington Keyes was attracted to count's settlements in part because he wanted to quit dentistry. Joining them there were 20 families, and more in all, including the McIntyre’s concerns of William Lowndes Yancey. When the colony failed by mid-1868, Keyes moved his family to Dixie island in Rio and into a new 16-room home in the city itself. By May 1869. Their eldest daughter, Eule, and her husband, Dr. John W coachman, were already in Rio where they had settled upon arrival. Coachman, who was also a dentist, had established a practice by the time his in-laws arrived from the lake.
Julia Luisa Hintz keys hated the Rio Dolce but enjoyed and admired Rio. The food, the theater, the opera, and even the sewage system. Once established in the city, Julia was delighted with Brazil: "You cannot know how much we talk about all our friends and neighbors to see them, but I do not care to return to the States. I am so well satisfied with this climate and I believe we become settled we can live much more economically than there, coming to the matter of fact--- and that is a consideration, you know," Julia’s emphasis on the cost-of-living undoubtedly stems from the fact that she and John had 15 children. By 1870, however, a portion of the keys family did go back to Alabama. In the letter to a cousin, notifying her of their impending return, Jenny Keyes wrote: 'immigration has ceased, and we rarely ever make new claimants." Her father attended a counterstatement check-- "immigration has not ceased--- quite a number came on the last steamer and many more are expected to follow. I don’t want to return and but for the children would not--- make it off the two months or two years. The coachman said Charles Whiting key( the eldest son) remained in Brazil, at least into the 1890s, and in Charles’s case into the early 1900s, living variously in Rio, São Paulo, Petropolis, the location of the Emperor summer palace in the cooler mountains above Rio.
(These excerpts come from the article written by Peter A. Brannon in The Alabama Historical Quarterly Summer -1930)
A Southern Colonization Society for those desiring to move to Brazil was formed. Among its members were: Dr. Hugh A. Shaw, Major Isaac Boles, Mr. B. C. Bryan, Mr. William M. Williams, Mr. T. B. Reese, Mr. Harrison S. Strom, Dr. T. J. Teague, John L. Nicholson, William F. Duriscoe, Benjamin F. Mays, Henry G. Arthur, D. F. McEwin, Thomas J. Davis, S. J. M. Clark, Capt. Tillman Watson, Jr., W. J. Gardner, Charles Glover, John Sentell Esq. Capt. W. H. Brunson, Dr. W. D. Jennings, Mr. G. W. Morgan, John R. Carwile, Major Robert Meriwether
The Officers were:
President – Major Joseph Abney
Vice-President – Colonel D. L. Shaw
Secretary – Colonel A. P. Butler
Corresponding Secretary – Major John E. Bacon
Treasurer – Thomas B. Reese
It is not recorded who on this list went to Brazil. Thomas J. Adams and Hiram Q. Adams went down with Colonel Meriwether but did not remain very long.
Diary of Mrs. Julia Keyes
Jennie Rutledge Keyes, the second child of Dr. Keyes, married James A. Davidson, Jr. in Montgomery Feb-ruary 8, 1875. She died in 1879. She was the grandchild of the celebrated novelist, Caroline Lee Hentz. Her
Diary is frank and expressive and at the same time, bubbling with that romantic spirit that the environment of that cultured grandmother would suggest. Mr. Davidson resided, (1930), with his daughter, Mrs. Fitzgerald Salter, in the city of Montgomery No picture of the life of the Americans in Brazil, can be more vividly painted than to quote, just as they are set out, the volumes which are affectionately referred to by the members of the families, as “Jennie’s Diaries.”
The first volume includes a statement of several pages made by Mrs. Julia Louisa Keyes, wife of Dr. John Washington Keyes a dentist, who married the daughter of Professor Nicholas M. and Caroline Lee Hentz.
Certain fly-leaf notations in these volumes, made by Jennie, give pertinent information, and they, too, are used here. A statement of much value is one prepared on board the Barque Wavelet on their return home in 1870. It concludes the story.
Dr. John Washington Keyes was born in Athens, Limestone County, Alabama, on November 24, 1825, and died in Wewahitchka, Florida, on November 27, 1892. He studied medicine and graduated from the Cincinnati Dental College and practiced dentistry in Montgomery. He entered the Confederate Army as a member of a Cavalry Company under Captain, later General, James H. Clanton. He was subsequently a 2nd Lieutenant of Company E, 1st Battalion, Hilliard’s Legion, and later became a 2nd Lieutenant of Company F of the 60th Alabama Infantry Regiment. He was subsequently Surgeon of the 17th Infantry Regiment. In 1867 the family moved to Brazil. After their return to Alabama, in 1870, he removed to Florida.
John Keyes (32) second:son of Captain John Keyes, m. Catherine Groves, December iv3(), 18()4 [a miss-print in the Kvyea history— probably 1806]. 'His. wife dn-d June 20, 1872. Their children: / • .
428. William Groves,,hi February 1, 1808.
429 Nancy, d fit six years. '.
430 John Talbott, b. September 10. 1811.
431. Elizabeth resided ir Canada.
432. Washington, d in Cumberland Conn * • . ty, Tennessee. February 13. 1838.
433. Campbell, residence in Canada. .•.; '.t: ;ii.:-434. Robin, residence in Tennessee.
435. Joseph, residence Waller County, Ga. . -.r - 436. Hiram, d. in Gentry County, Missouri:ii . 437.'Martha resides in Canada.
'William Groves Keyes (428) moved with his parents from Washington County, Virginia, to HankinsCounty, Tennessee, w!i ;re he ro. Evaline Wright, and had one son, Thomas Lilbnrn. Then moved to Green County, Tennessee, where his wife d. September 21. 1859. William m. second time, November 20, 1861, Harriet, daugh. of Charles Cook, by whom he had two sons and one daughter. Thomas Lilburn Keyes was b. Septem-ber 17, 183H; m. September 25, 1859, Elizabeth Nease, of Cocke County, Tennessee. They have four child-ren:
438. Cyrus Hannibal.
439. William Perez.
440. Sarah Evaline.
441. Sabrina Belle.
John (430) m. Lucy Josephine Childress, b. April 1819,—a niece of General Edward Gaines He has in his possession the old family Bible bequeathed by Captain John to the eldest John in the family, successively, from which book many records relating to the family have been taken. Resides in Bristol, Tennessee. Children:
442. Mary Virginia, b. February 12, 1844.
443. Theron or Theodore, b. Sept. 28, 1845.
444. Letitia Catherine, b. March 13, 1847; d. November 18, 1857.
445. Martha Elizabeth, b. September 2,1848.
, 446. George A., b. March 27.1850; d. June 30, 1858.
447. John Matthew, b. December 7. 1851; d. Decem bar 10, 1857.
George Keyes (35), 4th son of Captain John, was b. in Washington County, Virginia. Early in life he and his brother Washington (36) removed to Limestone County, Alabama, where they merchandised and planted in the company. He served at one time as captain of a volunteer company under General Jackson, and later was
elected and served as general of the brigade of utility in his military district in Alabama. He m. in Sullivan County, Tennessee, November 16, 1820, Nellie, dau of Robert and Crockett Rutledge, and the young couple made their way to Alabama on horseback. Robert Rutledge was a son of William Rutledge. of County Lyson, and Nellie Gambel, of County Carau, Ireland, and grandson of George Rutledge. George Keyes d. in Lime-stone County June 13, 1833. Nellie, his wife, b. March I, 1797, d. October 22. H34. Children:
448. Wade, b. October JO. 1821.
449. Martha Louisa, b. September 23, 1823.
450. John Washington, b. March 25, 182.).
451. Jane Charlotte, b. November 16, 1827.
452. George Presley, b. September 8, 1829.
453. Husau. b. July 1. 1832; d. June 29, 1848.
Wade Keyes (448) was a student at the University of Virginia in the session of 1837-38. He left the next session on account of ill health mid deaths in the family. He studied law with William kictiardsmt. Esq , subsequently joining a law class- taught by Daniel Coleman, Miki finally graduated from the law department of Transylvania University, at Lexington, Kentucky. In 1842 he sailed to Europe, traveled the continent, and in England and Ireland, returning in the autumn of 1843. He moved to Florida in 1848 and practiced law in Jackson County, in that state. While residing there he published two legal volumes which attracted much attention. In 1851 he returned to Alabama and continued the practice of law in Montgomery, then the capital of the state. He was elected chancellor of the Southern chance
There were also five children who died in infancy.
Martha Louisa Keyes (449) m. Henry C. Jones, October 13, 1844. Mr. Jones has been several times in the legislature, was a member of the Confederate congress, and is now state attorney for his judicial circuit. Children:
457. William Stratton died from wounds received as a Confederate soldier in the battle at Franklin, Tennessee.
458. Martha, m. Melville Allen, of Marion County, Alabama.
459. George, a lawyer in Lauderdale County, Alabama.
460. Ella Rives.
462. Jennie Keyes.
463 Martha Balling.
464. Robert Young.
465. Wade K<?yes.
John Washington (450) entered Lagrange College, Alabama, in January 1842, where he was suspended in 1843 for fighting. Returning home he studied medicine, attended medical lectures in Louisville, Kentucky, and commenced the practice of medicine in partnership with Dr. Welch in Somerville, Alabama. On the 4th of November, 1846, he m. Julia L., eldest dau. of Prof. Nicholas Marcellus and Caroline Hentz, in Tuscogee, Alabama. They have had 15 children whose names we have not received. In 1849 he studied in Cincinnati and in 1850 took the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the Ohio Dental College, and the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the Mediia1
College of Ohio. Dr. Keyes was for a time in Florida and in 1857 removed to Montgomery, Alabama, devoting himself to the practice of dentistry, to the literature of which profession he was an occasional contributor. He was in the Confederate army at Mobile, In Co. A of the Battalion of Hilliard's Legion, and as a surgeon of the 12th Alabama Regiment. He also acted as a surgeon in St. Mary's Hospital, in Montgomery, and elsewhere. The citizens of Montgomery presented him with a fine horse as a mark of esteem. After the war, he went to Brazil. Returned, and in 1873 bought land in Calhoun County, Florida, and engaged in the culture of oranges. Dr. Keyes is six feet tall, weighs 180, with great physical strength, as may be seen from the fact of his having captured a shark 8 feet long, without the aid of man or weapons.
Jane C. Keyes (451) m. John D. Rathen, January 26, 1842. He is a lawyer, has been a circuit judge, speaker of the House of Representatives, president of the Senate of the General Assembly of Alabama, and a member of the constitutional convention of 1875. Has also been president of the Memphis & Ch.'irleston Railroad Co. Resides at Tuscumbia, Colbert Count}', Alabama. Mrs. Jane Rathen died in 1853. Children:
466. George T., connected with the Memphis & Tennessee Railroad.
467. Silas P., lawyer, Decatur, Alabama.
468. Ellen Rutledge, resides at Tampa, Florida.
George Presley (452) graduated from Lagrange College, Alabama, at the age of 18 years
Albert G (472) was educated at the University of Mississippi, at Oxford In the late war he belonged to the 28th regiment of cavalry, was wounded in the charge through Franklin, Tennessee, under Van Dorn, was taken to the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, and died there May 23, 1863. He left a dau. whose death occurred soon after his own.
Bettie Keyes (473) m. the 1st of August, 1851, her cousin, Joseph Keyes, a merchant of New Orleans, had four children, Bettie and Lillie, and two boys who died in infancy. Bettie m. Frank Andrews, of Warsaw, Franklin Parish, Louisiana, and has one child. Lillie is the wife of Charles Hunter, Bolivar, Mississippi. Joseph Keyes d. July 1857. In 1864 Bettie [his widow m. A. VV. Hunter, of Claiborne County, Mississippi. He was killed by mistake, on May 20, 1872. Bettie m. the third time, May 12, 187S, Judge William Chambers, of Chambers County, Texas, where she now resides. .,
Frank W. (474) graduated at the University of Mississippi, Oxford, was in the 25th regiment, infantry, was made captain, was taken prisoner with Floyd's Brigade at Fort Donelson, and remained in prison at Sand-usky Island seven months, afterward exchanged. A Southern paper of that period speaks of him as the youngest of a noble family of brothers who moved into Carroll County a few years before the war, all whole-souled and generous, and superior to anything mean or sordid or base. The same paper speaks of him as a splendid soldier. After the war Captain Keyesreturned to Carrollton to the practice of law.
Diary of Jennie R. Keyes Montgomery, Alabama. This study was made at the request of Dr. Wyatt H. Blake a zealous member of the Board of Trustees of the Alabama State Department of Archives and History since its creation in 1901
They had 14 children:
1. Ellen Keyes (m. James Baker Hunter)
2. Julia Hentz Keyes (Died young)
3. Henry Whiting Keyes (Died young)
4. Jennie Keyes m. James F. Davidson)
5. Caroline Whiting Keyes (m. Ole Pickens),
6. Eula Keyes (m. John W. Coachman),
7. Wade Hampton Keyes (Died Young)
8. Julie Keyes (m. Frank Branch),
9. Alice Keyes (m. Warren Scott),
10. William Baldwin Keyes, (m. Annabel Laurence Christie)
11. Charles Keyes, (m. Emily Suplee Longstreth)
12. David Rebel Keyes, m. Elizabeth Stratford
13. George Keyes (m. Jessie Hentz),
14. Martha Louise "Mattie" Keyes (Died Young)
(Editor: The following is a transcription of a diary kept by Dr. John Keyes on his and his family's journey on the "Marmion", procured by the Brazilian government, to transport would-be settlers from New Orleans, Louisiana to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The transcription is "as written". )
DR. Keyes Account of the trip aboard the “Marmion”.
"The Trip to Brazil"
by Dr. John Washington Keyes
April 6, 6 ½ p.m. left Mot. on the steamer Dubloon. Capt. Kirk – Mitchell, clerk – whose beat I commend to all who desire to travel on a good boat and deal with true gentlemen. Every attention and accommodation was shown – expected or desired.
(Editor: The "Doubloon" was a river steamer that plied the Alabama Rivers, taking plantation wares to New Orleans. Once in New Orleans, the passengers caught the "Marmion", a large ocean steamer, for the rest of the trip to Brazil. On July 6, 1867, the Doubloon, now owned and captained by W. G. Mitchell, caught fire and burned to the water line at the lake end of the New Canal, near Selma, Alabama. A complete loss.)
Adieus are sad to say when in this instance they are too many tried and true friends whom I never expect to see again the only way is to say them quickly and be gone.
There are many I am rejoiced to say it so – whom I have no desire to see again because having trusted them implicitly they deceived me – others the taking advantage of circum-stances and my forbearance defrauded me but among these, it is a consolation that I cannot remember one who did his duty to his country in her hour of need. Not one who did not have his price and put money in his pocket even the dependents of those who were enduring the trials and hardships of the camp suffered. I do not think that these would not have been moved by kindly impulses and relieved in part by the destitution that might have been brought to their doors – but that the love of gain served to induce them to follow a course which they knew was wrong in the abstract and practiced by many would of necessity bring their country to the condition it did.
To all those so-called Confederates, I trust I have bid an eternal adieu. Before the war, there were few men I would not trust. Since the war, I have found the rule reversed and what pains me most and urges my departure is that the number worthy of confidence grows less every day.
To the good and true I have left behind, my hand is ever extended and my pocket open to assist so far as I am able to do so with justice to myself. Many of these I will cherish in my heart as long as it pulsates.
Montgomery and loved friends good-bye!
Saturday – Soft bread, Oatmeal porridge, Coffee. Soup, fresh meat, potatoes, hard bread. Hard bread, butter and tea.
Sunday – Soup, salt pork, plum pudding, potatoes, hard bread, apple source, hard bread, butter and tea.
At a quarter past ten on the morning of the 16th, we cast loose and commenced our voyage towards Brazil. We were to have started at 8 o’clock – but a thief got on board, and we were delayed some time by his hunt for his baggage, etc. Without incident, we reached the mouth of the river and at 6 o’clock crossed the bar. I never saw the sea smoother and the sky clearer. Everything seemed to favor us.
17th. We had a glorious run last night and today. Passed one ship under full sail. The gulls and shearwaters beginning to leave us. We have had all sail set and this adds about ½ mile per hour to our speed and keeps the ship steady. Quite a number have been sick but nothing like what I expected. The ship is so steady that one can write much better than on a river steamer. We are making 8 ½ knots per hour.
18th. Thursday, Portuguese men of war, a kind of amclegelatinous fish that spread its sail and looks very pretty have been abundant today. We saw a vast number of flying fish – a dozen at a time rising near the bow of the ship at a time and winging their way over the water – flying, some of them, over 200 yards. Tonight made and passed the lights on the Tortugas – at one of which – Fort Jefferson – are confined Dr. Mudd and others – with what justice the future will tell. We watched the lights until one o’clock A.M. and the bright spots made by the moonlight thru the few clouds reminded me forcibly of life.
18th. Good Friday. I went on deck early this morning, washed off the soil of the U.S., put on clean clothes and thought I had bid adieu to my native land – but alas we are cruelly reminded of the Puritans and his abominations by having cod fish for dinner.
Our bill of fare says coffee for breakfast but even here we are punished. Our Yankee friends – ship owners – may have thought there was a pleasant reminiscence for Confederates in corn meal and rye coffee or that it would be more acceptable to the stomach or that we could not bear the more pure article – but I suspect none of these charitable possibilities was the cause. And yet when the cost for the supply for the passage would have been only about $50, I cannot understand why we should have been denied it.
I call Gen. Girarnnia’s (?) attention to this item and hope some friend will mark the paragraph and see that he gets it. There has been cruel criminality somewhere either by intention or neglect.
In all other respects our fare, the not such as I most desire is nearly as good as I expected under the circumstances. I very strongly suspect that there is a Yankee in this coffee and hence I cannot stomach it. The tea is abundant and good. Our tickets and passports were demanded today and one man was found secreted who was minus. He was sent to the masthead.
20th. Saturday. Last night we had a little rain and blow. The wind being against the current made the sea rougher by far than we have yet had it. Not many however were sick and I turned in about 10 o’clock and slept a deep refreshing sleep rocked in the cradle f the deep.
All day we have been in sight of some rocks or islands belonging to England. Have had one bite at my squid, but did not catch the fish tho he left marks of his teeth in the tin.
We are now near Great Stump Key, one of the group of the Berrys, where a negro named Ellis is Governor. There is here a population of about 200. The Capt. Says this Gov. used frequently to come aboard of his ship – and in passing once his boat came and he was not in it. He inquired after him and was told that he was very sick and wished to send him a piece of pork.
Today at 12 we were 814 miles from New Orleans.
The sea is very smooth again and all the folks seem to enjoy themselves as if on a picknick. A Chuck Will’s widow, a Bee Martin and a beautiful little bird have kept with the ship all day – wearied nearly to death from their continuous flight. They lighted about anywhere on the vessel and seemed to be almost regardless of the presence of man.
21st. Sunday. Had the dolphin for breakfast and it proved to be a very edible fish and very acceptable to the 20 or more of us. The ship has rolled a good deal – many sick. Wind ahead. Capt. Lead the service. Several ministers aboard but all sickish or waiting on the nauseated. Afternoon – wind has hauled toward the north and we are able to spread our canvas. Latitude 25.31. Longitude 75.15
22nd. Monday. No incidents today.
23rd. Tuesday. One week out today and we are 1350 miles from N. Orleans. Made 189 miles today and this has been traveling. A case of varioloid was discovered among the passengers today. Very mild.
24th. Wednesday. At no time has the thermometer thus far risen above 82 between decks. Latitude this afternoon 20.22. A delightful breeze all day. Some showers in sight. Made Porta Rica right about 8 P.M. Distance today 207 miles.
25th Thursday. Beautiful morning. Huge rocks standing solitary and high out of the water. St. Thomas soon came into view – looking very pretty nestled on the hillside. The roofs were red, covered no doubt with tiles. Many vessels lay at anchor, many small boats sailing about outside and one having negros aboard had a U.S. flag floating from a stick. Today 165 – making 1745 to St. Thomas, 1762 at 12.
26th Friday. Lovely morning. A ship with all sail except the sky scraper set is not far off. Tis a beautiful sight. Precipitous rocks in sight and at 8 o’clock we are near Montserrat on the point of which is the town of Plymouth. Something still to remind one of the Yankee. I should like to see your morning papers and know what the last turn in the screw of your radical masters is. Sam Slick says “Show me a radical and I'll show you a tyrant! You can realize the truth. Miles today 179 – Lat. 16.21, Long. 61.52.
In the afternoon we were close to the island of Guadeloupe and passed by very near the town of Basse Terre. A beautiful little town above the banana plantations, etc. The coconut trees are very graceful – tall, straight trees, looking as if they were whitewashed. We could see the fruit in the trees. I cannot enter into minute descriptions but must not forget to mention the volcano here the crater of which we could see. At night it is said sparks can be seen from it. It is 5500 feet high. Many vessels have been in sight today and many small boats. You must see to appreciate the verdure and beauty of the scenery. Those lofty mountains, the beautiful farms, the rich vegetation cannot be painted in words. From what I have seen I think there is no voyage where one can see more of the beauties of nature, sprinkled with the improvements of man than to this. We see houses perched upon the topmost peak of the tall mountains and embossomed in the beautiful and luxuriant little rolling plains and gorges. We are tonight sailing close to Dominica and I can see lights from the dwellings all along the beach and upon the mountains.
Saw a great many porpoises and black fish this evening. The sea is very smooth – a delightful breeze ahead. Thermometer at noon today83 – distance run since 12 yesterday 179 – latitude 16.21, long. 61.51.
27th Saturday. Another bright morning, with a fresh breeze. We are passing between Martinique and St. Lucia and out into the Atlantic again.
Our Capt. – Wm. C. Berry verified our bill of fare last night and the result was salt beef and good hash and tea instead of rice, molasses, and Union coffee.
The result of this change was manifest in the gusto with which the breakfast was discharged and satisfaction expressed in words and by the face of all. I am much pleased with the officers of the ship. From the Capt. Down I have received nothing but kindness and courtesy and an evident desire to do all in their power to accommodate and render our voyage as pleasant as possible.
I was in error in stating the number of passengers at 356. After we got off and noses were counted again we found 263. Men 152, women 38 and 73 children. And it is to be expected that among so many there would be some who could not be satisfied with any fare that could be provided for them. There would be some complaints but by far the larger part are satisfied and comfortable. Thermometer 83. Lat. 13.46 Long. 60.20. Distance 180 miles.
About 6 o’clock we were near Barbados. This is one of the most fertile of the British Isles and is not as broken as the others. As we were passing it in the night, we could only see the lights gleaming out from the homesteads.
Bridgetown is a large town and we could almost see the figures of persons passing between us and the lights in what appeared to be public saloons. The next land we see will be home. I saw tonight the Southern Cross. It is worth the voyage to see the magnificent display of light worlds that are grouped in the southern sky. I never had a conception of the beauty and grandeur. How often I have thought of Miss H. and wished she could be with us to feast her eyes upon the firmament.
28th. Sunday. Another bight Sunday. Rev. Ballard S. Dunn had service under an awning aft – but the engine was so noisy I could not hear a word. Our voyage has been so pleasant that we are often wholly oblivious to the fact that we are on a vessel and out of sight of land. The breeze is perfectly delicious. Thermometer at 83 between decks. Lat. 11.49, Long. 55.16 distance run to 12. 181 miles.
The children have a gay time and Reb is the observed of all observers. The Capt. says he is everybody's miss and nobody’s match.
29th. Monday. Lat. 10.50 Long. 56.19. 165.
30th. Tuesday. Latitude 8.23 Long. 54.23
An Albacore was caught on the squid today – He is a beautiful fish with long fins. Would probably weigh 20 or 25 lbs. The stomach was filled with small fish. One kind resembled the bream but being in a very bad humor.
Cloudy more or less with a light shower or two.
1st. Wednesday. We had the Albacore for dinner and our end of the table was very popular. Still cloudy – some little rain. Running in the trough of the sea the ship has rolled more than any other time yet. All the children have their sea legs and Rebel does not seem to be aware that he is not on terra firma. Lat. 6.37. Long 52.45. Distance 137 – Thermometer 82 ½.
2nd. Thursday. More or less cloudy but a fine day and clear night. It is pleasant to see that our shadows no longer fall towards the North. We are in lat. 5.13. long. 51.32. Have made 192 miles but the strong current has retarded us 72 so that we have only got 120 on our way. Thermometer 83. The water has discolored by the waters of the Oyapock River in French Guiana. Mother Cary’s chickens have been incessantly on the wing in the wake of the ship for several days. This is a small bird much the size and general appearance of a swallow. I do not know when or where they rest and I think my wife may fitly be compared to them in this respect for she has been running her sewing machine and sewing with her needle just as if this were not a holiday.
Porpoises are the hogs with the devils in them which ran down a steep place.
3rd. Friday. Another fine day. The current here runs 3 2/3 miles per hour against us and whilst we go at the rate of 204 we only made 110 miles. The Capt. Says he has never met it so before and predicts a great rise in the Amazon and other rivers. The water is only about ¼ salt and is dark. Thermometer 85 ½ Lat. 4.16 Long. 50.05. Distance 110.
4th. Saturday. After a nice shower today the ocean was waveless. I have never before seen it so mirror-like. We are today off the mouth of the Amazon – latitude 1.58 longitude 48.20 distance 164. Thermometer 83.
The parallels of 27 and 28 are like the space between 4 degrees N. and South of the equator are called windless. The former are called horse latitudes and get their name from the circumstances of a great many horses usually found floating there when Connecticut supplied so many horses to the West India Islands. The brigs loaded with horses would reach this place and there being no breeze the vessels rolled so much that many horses died and were thrown overboard and found floating by the vessels passing. Between 4 N. and 4 S. it is called the doldrums and like the other is windless, but we have been blessed with good breezes.
5th. Sunday. Today we crossed the equator. It has rained and cloudy but a good breeze blows. The gulls have made their appearance again indicating that the island is near at hand. Island Caranasn or Seramboque . Afternoon – Land, Land, Land on the Starboard bow. And sure enough, there is Brazil. The dream of two years is here and I do indeed behold the land I’ve so longed to see.
We are off the mouth of Para River and streaks of dark water with leaves, some green and fresh – one green banana and driftwood are floating by. With the naked eye, we can see the white sand and dark blue line of vegetation. A fish has broken the hook in the tin squid and Coachman has procured another hook and lashed I big tin spoon to it. Says he is fishing for butterfish. He stretched a hair between the glasses of the spyglass and showed many of the unsophisticated the “Line” about the time we crossed it. Bully for Coachman.
Our latitude at noon was 25 miles south of the equator. Longitude 46.36 dist. 166 Ther. 82.
6th. Monday. Passing Maranhoa today – running from one headland to another we have only seen land this afternoon. Light shower today fresh breeze – rather warm. Thermometer between decks 85. Lat. 1.57 long. 43.58 distance of 170 miles.
Lost my squid – a fish biting it off the line. Mother Cary’s chickens quit when we made land yesterday.
Tonight we saw the new moon for the first time south of the equator. Tonight we have had a fine view of the heavens. The North star is below the horizon – but the Southern constel-lations blaze out in magnificence. For several nights I have observed a cloud just below the Southern Cross and have waited and watched for the cloud to drift away. Tonight being quite clear I was able to see what I took for a cloud was a vacant space – save by one star which could be dimly seen near the center of the cloud. Neither Capt. Mate or sailors remember to have noted it before so I concluded that it is the place where the Confederacy went out. The Cross stands to watch the spot.
7th. Tuesday. Shower today – lat. 2.27 long. 41.15 dist. 172 Thermometer 84.
8th. Wednesday. Passing the luxuriant-looking coast. The mountain sides look green and are evidently covered with crops. Houses are seen occasionally near the beach. Saw today the first catamarans. These are made of 7 logs pinned together with a plank on which the men sit. They are propelled by one sail and run rapidly and the fish are caught by trolls. These craft go out as far as 50 miles fishing. We are now passing the town of Ceara – which looks very pretty and the buildings imposing. There is a lighthouse here on Point Mocaripe. The day is superb – fine cool breeze – lat. 3.25 long. 38.50 distance 158. Thermometer 84.
9th. Thursday. Very fine – cool breeze. No land in sight until late in the afternoon. Lat. 4.33 long. 36.26 dist. 160, Ther. 84.
10th. Friday. I thought a rain in the morning was like an old women’s dance – soon ended but it began to rain this morning and continued to shower at short intervals until 11 o’clock P.M. when I turned in. Passed two sails today. If anyone will take the map and mark for each day the long. And lat. They will be able to form a very correct idea of the route we have followed. We passed Cape St. Roque last night and have changed our course from east to west of south. Lat. 6.26 long. 34.44 dist. 166 ther. 80.
F.M. Ezell, D.H. and B.C. Yancey, Wm. M. Harris, W.L. Mitchell, T.A. McClure, D. Brazell, Wm. H. Capps, F. Nanfit, J.W. Wysinger, J.M. Ayres, J. Boyles, E.T. Trigg, Jas. Snelling, H. Anderson, Frank Harris, Jose Mores, Jno. Kennedy, F.J. Thomas, Wm.Norris, J. Phillips, W.H. Satterfield, J.S. Triggs, W.L. Owen, Simeon Miller, Patrick Fahy, W.P. Rutledge, J.W. Coachman, J.A. Dunn, M.D. (Editor: This list is assumed to be traveling companions)
11th. Saturday. This is one of the most delicious days I have ever seen or felt. One feels like putting some up in cane for future use. And it reminds me to say that tomato and other catsup are good things to bring among your private stores. We passed Maceio about 3 P.M. twelve miles distant. What we could see of the buildings looked imposing. We have been in sight of the bold shore all day. The mountains have been plainly visible for fifty miles. Lat. 9.26 long. 35.01 distance 186 thermometer 80.
12th. Sunday. Fine day and a fair wind. A little rain at night. Service by Rev. B.S. Dunn. Circle around the moon tonight with all the colors of the rainbow. Lat.12.35 Long. 36.30 Dist. 207 thermometer 82. No land in sight today. Passed Bahia 80 miles off. The distance from Pernambuco to Rio is 1100 miles, from Bahia 725.
13th. Monday. Another fine day and for the most part, fair wind. A shower or two. It is astonishing how rapidly the time slips away. Lat. 15.37 long. 37.21 distance 189 miles thermometer 82. In these reports of the thermometer, I have given what I have noted as the highest and the observations have usually been noon.
14th. Tuesday. Pretty hard shower last night but clear this morning – vessel in sight. Tonight and last night there was a tripping of light fantastic on deck in the moonlight. Lat. 18.42 long. 38.30 dist. 196 miles. Thermometer 81. But little wind today and for the first time during our voyage the sails were on the port–left – side of the ship.
15th. Wednesday, The wind came out stiff from the southwest last night and this morning we have it dead ahead and with a heavier sea than at any previous time. The children are having a grand romp on deck whilst many of the grown-ups find some difficulty in keeping their feet or seats under them.
Porpoise and black fish have been for a portion of the day as thick as “leaves in Vallombrosa” or green backs in the U.S. They seem to enjoy themselves greatly – leap from the water and rolling over in the air. I think there could not have been more up in the air at a time and the stream to the upward element was incessant. Bats, roaches, flies, etc. Lat. 21.12 Long. 40.0 distance 173 – therm. 76.
16th Thursday. Cloudy today but the sun peeps thru occasionally. At noon we were close to Cape Frio – where there is a light house, and whence runs a telegraph to Rio. – hence 56 miles. A light house was first built here upon one of the tip-top peaks of the rock but it was so high up that the clouds obscured it and it had to be abandoned and another erected much lower down and on the side of the mountain. We were close enough to see persons at the house. From this point, our course is west and close by the bold, broken beach we steam until 8 P.M. when turn into the Bay of Rio. A few more times and the engine ceases – the anchor finds the bottom and we are safe in the haven so long and anxiously desired.
Our propeller with only ½ hours rest has made two million, four hundred, and twelve thousand, four hundred and eighty-four revolutions and now rests. Thermometer 72. Dist. 156 miles – making 5450 miles. We had the most beautiful sunset this evening we have yet had and the sun swept behind Rio and brought out the Sugar Loaf – which marks the entrance to the bay in bold relief. The scenery here is beyond description. The mountains are covered with rich verdure and broken into all conceivable shapes and sizes. But come and see - Your true friend.
THIS IS WHERE THE DOCTOR’S ACCOUNT ENDS
Eula Hentz Keyes
BIRTH 23 FEB 1853, Montgomery, Montgomery, Alabama, USA
DEATH 30 JUL 1920 • Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Married: 5 Jun 1872 • Mathews, Montgomery, Alabama, USA
Dr. John William Coachman
BIRTH 19 APR 1845 • Steam Mill, Decatur, Georgia, USA
DEATH 10 JUL 1918 • São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
He was buried in the Araçá Cemetary but his remains are now in the Coachman grave in the Redentor Cemetery - São Paulo.
Son of James Joseph Coachman and Martha J Hankins
Eula and John had at least twelve children
Dr. John William Coachman
The Coachman Family has over 168 years of tradition in Dentistry and is currently in the 6th generation of dentists. The origin of the Coachman family coincides with the beginning of Dentistry as a profession itself, in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1849, John Keyes Washington already graduated in Medicine from the Medical College of Ohio, United States, received his degree in Dental Surgeon from Ohio College of Dental Surgery, starting to contribute significantly to the development of scientific literature in dentistry. After the Civil War in the United States, from 1861 to 1865, when John served as an officer surgeon in the Army, the family decided to move to Brazil. They settled in Rio de Janeiro, where they began their activities in dentistry, which were greatly enriched by their important contributions, marked by the pursuit of accuracy and clinical excellence since then.
In 1874, John William Coachman received the “Dental Office” title from the Brazilian Imperial Government and, together with his brothers Charles Whiting Keyes and William Baldwin Keyes, he began what would become a tradition for the family in the country: to lead and increasingly improve this important field of Medicine. They excelled in the field, which resulted in serving Emperor Dom Pedro II, thus becoming close to the palace for many years.
Dr. John William Coachman's Obituary (Unsourced)
Dr. John William Coachman - Died July 10th at 4 A.M. at Hentz's home, Rua Pamplona 5, São Paulo.
After a lingering illness of several weeks, Dr. Coachman died at the home of his son, Dr. Hentz Coachman, in São Paulo, on July 10, 1918. Funeral services were conducted by Reverend M. Dickie, Pastor of the Central Methodist Church of São Paulo.
Dr. Coachman was the pioneer American dentist of Brazil, having practiced his profession in Rio de Janeiro for 51 years. On May 27th of last year, the American dentists of Rio gave a banquet in honor of Dr. Coachman, at which many expressions appreciative of his personal, and professional character were made. He was regarded by all who knew him as a man of unimpeachable integrity, and generous philanthropic spirit. He was a member of the Methodist Church and proved the genuineness of his faith by a life rich in good works.
Dr. Coachman is survived by his aged and invalid wife, by four sons, Dr. J. J. Coachman, Dr. Keyes Coachman; both of Rio, Dr. Hentz Coachman of São Paulo, and Mr. Kendrick Coachman of Chicago, Ill.; three daughters, Mrs. J. Merritt Fordham, Mrs. M. Dickie, and Miss Eula Coachman of São Paulo.
He was buried in the Araçá Cemetary but his remains are now in the Coachman grave in the Redentor Cemetery - São Paulo.
Obituary - Unsourced
Mrs. Eula Hentz Keyes Coachman - Died July 30th, 1920 at 10:45 P.M. - Keyes' home is Petropolis
On Friday, July 30th, after a lingering illness of several months, Mrs. Coachman, widow of the late Dr. John W. Coachman, passed to her reward. Her husband, Dr. Coachman, was for years the most widely known American dentist in Brazil, being known as the father of American dentistry in this country.
In 1909, Mrs. Coachman suffered a stroke of paralysis from which she never fully recovered. For the last three months, she had been confined to her bed a patient and cheerful sufferer, quietly waiting for the summons home. Seven children survive their mother - Dr. J.J. Coachman, of Rio, Dr. Hentz Coachman and Mrs. M. Dickie of São Paulo, Dr. J. Keyes Coachman, Mrs. J. Merritt Fordham and Miss Eula Coachman of Petropolis, and Kendrick P. Coachman of Boston, Mass.
Was buried in Petropolis but remains are now in the Coachman grave in the Redentor Cemetery in São Paulo.
Col. C. G. Gunter's RIO DOCE Colony
of some of the colonists
Gunter & McIntyre resided in Linhares but farmed on lake "plantations"
KEYES & JOHNSON HOMESITES
The places selected for our future home is very beautiful. In front of us will be the large and magnificent Lake Juparana. Behind the loveliest little lake we have ever seen. On one side is a stream which will, when the rainy season comes flow from one lake to the other.
The gentleman took us in canoes around the little lake to look at various points. We found them all so beautiful we could not say which we liked best. This little lake is larger than ours and has five points extending from it like so many bays and coves. And looking down from the highest hill, it is said to be a perfect representation of an outspread hand. The largest and shortest bays making the thumb.
The final home for the Keyes family in Brazil was in the San Gomingos neighborhood in the town of Niteroy, across the bay from Rio. Their home was large, sat high on a hill, and was named Moro do Inga. The house was within walking distance of the beach and the neighborhood shops at the foot of the hill they lived on. It was also within walking distance of the ferry landing that crossed to Rio. Long after the Keyes family left Brazil, their cousins, (the Hentz - Crocker family among others) would have a large home in Niteroy - Typical of the once very fashionable area. See picture below -
"Corboro" Niteroy home of Charles A Hentz Jr
and Lucinda Andrews
JEANNETT KEYES, ERIK KEYES AND KEYES COACHMAN
CHARLES KEYES HOUSE, j. MERRITT FORDHAM HOUSE - 2 UNIDENTIFIED GENTLEMEN PETROPOLIS BRAZIL 1900
#L-R Eula Hertz, nee' Keyes,Coachman, Capt Johnston, Ellie Keyes, John William Coachman
Eula Hentz Keyes
Joseph Edward Coachman
John and Eula Keyes Coachman with family
Coachman;John William Coachman Dr. Birth 19 April 1845 in Decatur Co., Georga,USA . Death 10 Jul 1918 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo,
L-R James Joseph Coachman.(*James Joseph Coachman;Birth 30 Apr 1873 in Montgomery, Alabama Death 24 Jun 1950 in Brazil) , John Keyes Coachman (*John Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 Jul 1878 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Death 1940) Kendrick Powel Coachman,(*Kendrick Powell Coachman;Birth 24 Mar 1895 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Death;1953) Hentz Keyes Coachman (*Hentz Keyes Coachman;Birth 4 July 1874 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Death 7 July 1934 in São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil )
Coachman, Fordham and Keyes family members; #Seated: Leon Fordham, Eula Helen Coachman Standing (l-r): Eulyn Fordham, Kendrick Powell Coachman, a Hentz cousin?, Carie Hentz, Eula Hentz Keyes (Coachman), John William Coachman at Victoria Rd., Asheville - North Carolina
ALICE, ELDON AND BETH 1913 HIGHLAND HOMES ALABAMA
HOME OF CHARLES KEYES PETROPOLIS, BRAZIL
NELLIE SELDON FOWLER
VERY GOOD FRIEND OF ALICE KEYES SCOTT - JUST A COOL PICTURE 1890
Thomas Jefferson University - tradition and heritage, edited by Frederick B. Wagner, Jr., MD, 1989 Jefferson History and Publications January 1989 Part III: Clinical Departments and Divisions --- Chapter 29: Department of Psychiatry (pages 477-496)
Baldwin L. !Zeyes, M.D., D.Se., LL.D. (1893-); Clinical Professor of Psychiatry (1937-1942), and Professor of Psychiatry and First Chairman of the Department (1942- 1959)
A separate Department of Psychiatry was set up under the Directorship of Dr. Baldwin L. Keyes who in 1937 had been appointed Clinical Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Neurology and in 1942 was made full Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry. The establishment of a separate Department of Psychiatry was to have far-ranging effects on the program of instruction at the medical school, symbolizing the changing times, changing attitudes, and the increasing importance and awareness of mental processes as a pan of physical disease and as causes of mental disorders. There could not have been a more appropriate choice for Chairman than Dr. Keyes. He served as a leader, father figure, scholar, and superb clinician for hundreds of psychiatrists and literally thousands of medical students. He was "a man for all reasons" in his ability to maintain an open mind regarding any reasonable concept of the causes of mental disorders. Throughout a full lifetime of psychiatric practice, he preserved a posture of objectivity through a burgeoning set of theoretical positions about mental functioning.
Baldwin Keyes, born in Rio de Janeiro in 1893, had a unique childhood. His paternal grandfather, a dentist from Montgomery, Alabama, was a strong supporter of the Confederacy and a close friend of Jefferson Davis. He invested large amounts of money in the secession government, only to lose it in the fortunes of war. He migrated from Alabama to Rio de Janeiro, established a practice in dentistry, and raised his family. His mother, Emily Supplee Longstreth, was from an old Quaker family in Philadelphia. Because of his religious persuasion, her father purchased his way out of the Civil War, which was possible to do at that time, only to learn that the man who took his position for $200 was killed at the battle of Gettysburg. This cast such a heavy burden of depression upon him that he was advised by his physician to take a long sea voyage. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro after much seasickness, he refused to return to Philadelphia and called for his family to join him. Emily Longstreth married Baldwin Keyes' father (also a dentist), and seven children were born of this union. Throughout her life, she preserved much of the philosophy of Quakerism, a force that was to have a considerable impact on her son Baldwin. The children were raised in an area of Rio in which there was considerable cultural enrichment because much of the diplomatic corps lived nearby. All of the children were registered with the American Embassy as Americans. They learned to speak not only English but also Portuguese, German, French, and some Spanish.
After a brief education in the schools of Rio to the fourth-grade level, Dr. Keyes was sent to a boarding school in England for six months. He then continued his education in Philadelphia, the home of his maternal grandparents, at Germantown Academy and at Swarthmore Preparatory School, from which he graduated in 1912. Dr. Keyes enrolled in the Dental School of the University of Pennsylvania because of his desire to become an oral surgeon like his father and grandfather. After one year of such study and the ensuing summer in England, he decided to enter medicine. Following additional studies in botany at the University of Pennsylvania he enrolled at Jefferson in 1913 and graduated in 1917. At this time Europe was being ravished by World War I, and Dr. Keyes joined the U.S. Army as a First Lieutenant, Medical Reserve. The United States declared war on April 6, 1917. The British forces requested 1,000 doctors for combat duty; Dr. Keyes volunteered and was assigned to the Gordon Highlanders in France as a combat surgeon. He was awarded the British Military Cross in 1918 for meritorious service and showing bravery under enemy fire. When the American Expeditionary Forces came to France in 1917, Keyes was recalled to the American Army, where he continued to work as a combat surgeon for a short period. He was then assigned to a hospital for treatment of the sick and wounded from frontline duty at Aix-Les-Baines in the French Alps, where he became Hospital Adjunct (second in command) and was promoted to Captain in the Regular Army. He returned home in June 1919 and transferred his commission to the Army Reserves.
Following World War I, Dr. Keyes entered the Misericordia Hospital on the advice of Dr. Ross V. Patterson, Dean of Jefferson, for completion of an Internship. This had not been done following his graduation from medical school because of immediate war duty. Following this, he entered the Graduate School of the University for the purpose of becoming an oral surgeon. In order to support himself, he took the position of assistant to Dr. Edward A. Strecker at the Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital as a paid physician. This experience led to an interest in neurological and psychiatric disorders, thus terminating his goals in oral surgery. Keyes studied psychiatry instead, at the Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the Pennsylvania Hospital under Dr. Earl Bond. He remained on the staff of the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital as an Assistant in Neurology and Psychiatry from 1921 until 1925. With interest in psychiatry and neurology firmly established, Dr. Keyes carried out work with Dr. Strecker at the Pennsylvania Institute on ovarian therapy in involutional melancholia. This investigation was reported to the Philadelphia Psychiatric Society in 1922 and published later that year.
Despite an active clinical practice, teaching at Jefferson, serving as an Attending Physician to the Pennsylvania Hospital, Roseneath Farms, and as one of the founding members of the Fairmount Farm Hospital, Dr. Keyes again turned his attention to military matters occasioned by World War II. At the outbreak of the war, Governor Arthur H. James appointed Keyes a member of the Selective Service Board. In June, 194-0, before the outbreak of the war, the Army Surgeon General promoted him to Colonel and ordered him to organize and command the Jefferson Unit, the Thirty-eighth General Hospital. This hospital was to station in Cairo, Egypt, and serve the Mrican and European theaters of war. From 194-2 to 194-4-, Dr. Keyes served as the Unit's Executive Officer and Commandant in charge of medical affairs but was then transferred to England as a consultant in neuropsychiatry. He remained in the organized reserves of the United States Army until 1954-, when he retired. His last active military post was that of Commandant of the School of Military Neurology and Psychiatry at Mason General Hospital. Following the war, he was assigned as a Senior Consultant to the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army and to the Veterans Administration.
On returning to Jefferson after the war, Dr. Keyes became active in the development of the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, was appointed Psychiatric Consultant to the Municipal Court of the City of Philadelphia, and served on many advisory boards and committees as a part of his sense of civic duty and pride. He was an original member of the Admission Committee of the Medical College. The Jefferson Chapter of Alpha Omega Alpha awarded him an Honorary Membership in 1952. In 1966 he was awarded the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science from Drexel University and in 1967 the Doctor of Laws from Jefferson.
A charming man, gifted conversationalist, world traveler, superb photographer, and most of all a man able to influence students through his personal example, Keyes stimulated an interest in more students to enter psychiatry than his predecessor Dr. Strecker was doing at the University. Both continued to teach actively at their individual medical schools and at the Philadelphia General Hospital, but more students went into psychiatry from Jefferson than from the University of Pennsylvania. Indeed, there was more than one occasion when more residents from Jefferson went into psychiatry than into surgery, in spite of the enormous dynamism of the Department of Surgery. When medical students, residents, and staff started to form a Keyes Psychiatric Society, he demurred, recommending that it be called "The Jefferson Psychiatric Forum."
Through the efforts of Dr. Keyes, aided by generous financial support from Mrs. Mabel Pew Myrin, the fourteenth floor of the Thompson Building, a former area of operating rooms, was converted into a Psychiatric Unit opening in November 1957. This was the first specific unit for the care and treatment of nervous disorders at Jefferson Hospital and one of the first in Philadelphia. There was a bed capacity of 25 with an outstanding corps of nurses under the direction of Mrs. Rachael Clark. The first Director was Dr. John A. Koltes (Jefferson, 1947).
Dr. Koltcs was trained in psychiatry at Jefferson, the Friends Hospital, and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. He also received training in psychoanalysis at the Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis. In 1955 he studied the operation of certain European mental hospitals at the direction of the Secretary of Welfare. J4 The work of Dr. Maxwell Jones in the Therapeutic Community in Londonl5 and that of Dr. Manfred Bleuler at the Burgholtzli Hospital of the University at Zurich were the primary sources. Dr. Koltes at that time was Clinical Director of the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, a facility built in Philadelphia for the purpose of improving the quality of state mental hospital systems by providing training and research for members of the system and for new members to join. Drs. Baldwin Keyes, Robert Matthews, and Jolm Davis, in conjunction with the Secretary of Welfare, were instrumental in the establishment of this program. They visited Dr. Jones in London and several other psychiatrists and hospitals. This latter group was revolutionizing the entire mental hospital system of the country before the days of drug therapy by unlocking the doors and permitting fresh air to enter the dank halls of these large institutions. T.P. Rees at the Warlingham Park Hospital, Surrey, and George Bell at the Ding1cton Hospital, Melrose, Scotland, were prime examples of this new approach. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania published a journal, Letters from Europe, by Dr. Koltes outlining these programs.
Initially, it was considered feasible to admit patients to the Jefferson psychiatric unit from any ward of the hospital, including patients who were operated upon neurosurgically. It was quickly determined, however, that this was a successful effort and only patients who were not intensely psychotic or were suffering from severe brain damage could be treated in the inpatient unit. This led ultimately to the recognition that a variety of patients came from sources that had not previously been addressed. They were too sick to be treated as outpatients but not sick enough to be committed to mental hospitals. This work thus led to the establishment of a new perspective about inpatient care of a short-term, intensive nature that previously had not existed. Philadelphia psychiatry had tended to be divided into two groups, private facilities primarily at the Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, Friends Hospital, Fairmount Farm, and Roseneath, which together housed 400 to 500 patients, and the public hospitals at Byberry and Norristown, which together housed about 8,OOO patients. The psychiatric inpatient service of the general hospital, in contrast, served an entirely new group of people and has continued to do so since its initial establishment. 16,17 Dr. Koltes remained the director of the inpatient unit from 1957 until 1965 when he relinquished the administration to Dr. Howard L. Field (Jefferson, 1954) in order to enter full-time private practice.
In 1958 Dr. Keyes retired by reason of age from Chairmanship of the Department to become Professor Emeritus but continued to practice until July 1979, when he closed his office at the age of 86.A1umni Association President in 1955, presentation of his portrait to the College by the Class of 1955, recipient of the Jefferson Alumni Achievement Award in 1971, services in the affairs of Jefferson w1til past the age of 90, brought Dr. Keyes the seldom given title of "Mr. Jefferson."