Ballard Smith Dunn

 

On October 28, the Rev. Ballard Smith Dunn arrived in Rio de Janeiro on the Adelaide Pendergast from New York to search for lands for southern colonies. Dunn, the rector of St. Phillips Church of New Orleans from 1859 to 1861, served as chaplain and ordnance officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. He determined to immigrate to Brazil after a long and painful argument with church leaders of church protocol, provoked by disagreement concerning the ownership and placements of a baptismal font. After a series of written exchanges between Dunn in the Rev. Alexander Greg, Bishop of Texas, Dunn found his character somewhat impeached, even in his native Louisiana.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The two determined to join forces in their search, and they left on the twenty-fourth to ascend Pariq-uera River. The lands there, once again, were not what Dunn wanted, and the quest continued. Upon reaching the Juquia River, however, Dunn's aspect changed entirely. "At every turn of the beautiful stream," wrote the rector, "I felt like exclaiming Eureka!, Eureka!" Dunn proclaimed the land fit for virtually any crops, including coffee, tobacco, cotton, or sugar cane. He resolved to secure a government tract of 614,000 acres at the colony site and to name it Lizzieland after his wife, Elizabeth.

 

On June 30, 1866, Dunn concluded a favorable agreement with the director public lands, Bernardo Augosto Nacente Azambuj, which provided for land at forty-three and one-half cents per acre. Emigrants were to be able to purchase as much property hey wanted; however, Dunn was to be responsible for all payments to the government, with full title being granted after the debts were paid. Colonists were to be allowed to bring in all implements of agriculture, manufacturers, machines, and utensils for their own use, with no import duties, and the government was to provide provisional housing to emigrants upon arrival. The Brazilian government also agreed to furnish the transportation costs, pay for one ship for every two provided by Dunn. Finally, the agreement allows Dunn's colonists to disembark directly at Iguape--- at the head of the Ribeira de Iguape instead of going through Rio de Janeiro.

 

Parson Dunn returned to Louisiana and recruited the colonists for Lizzieland, and on April 1, 1867, the steam-ship Marmion sailed from New Orleans with 260 emigrants. They reached the harbor of Rio de Janeiro on March 16 and docked one day later. All were taken to a magnificent building called government house or Cassa de Saude, a structure formerly belonging to a Brazilian nobleman and located on the Morro de Saude--- one of the many hills that dot the landscape in Rio. At this mansion, called by the colonist the Emigrant Hotel, they were provided with food and housing while waiting for transportation to their new homes on the Juquia. According to one account, the group from the Marmion broke up in Rio, some going to Gold and diamond mines at Minas Garaes Province and others joining the colonial ventures of Charles Grandison Gunter on the Rio Doce. Many remaining in Rio rather than join established colonies.

 

If some emigrants who came to Brazil as part of Dunn's party left it in Rio, there may have been others who joined it for the trip to Iguape on May 24th at the newspaper Correo Mercantil in Rio reported that 257 North American emigrants were on board the Marmion for the last leg of the journey. As soon as possible, the entire group traveled by steamship up the Ribeira de Iguape as far as it was navigable, then boarded long thirty-foot canoes for their final journey up the Rio Juquai. Although the land was secured and crops were planted, a disastrous flood destroyed the first year’s worth of the Dunn colonists, causing wholesale desertion of the site to other parts of Brazil or a return to the United States. Dunn himself left for the United States before the tragedy, supposedly to recruit colonists. However, in New Orleans minister never return to Brazil, much to the chagrin of those who had followed him to that country.

The Rev. Dunn, whose intentions are still wrapped in a mystery, took leave of the flock three months after arriving at his Lizzieland. Some Confederates to this state believe that the Parson absconded with funds belonging to some of the colonists. The Miller family, in particular, was understood to have taken an oath that ”that was the last preacher we would ever into money too,” Dunn was the only leader whose honesty is forever in question, that the evidence against him was circumstantial. As soon as his group reached Brazil, letters were received by the southern press, warning prospective immigrants against ”the swindler

 

In his way, Dunn left four hundred Americans scattered across a plot of land as large as the state of Delaware, and over time, they blended into the Brazilian surroundings. It is reported that the Dunn colony in 1896 had only six houses that were still being occupied by the Confederado families. The site was overgrown with vegetation, and even the road was covered with weeks. There was no post office, no church, and the steamboats had stopped coming up the River.

On November 11, 1865, Dunn boarded the coastal packet steamer Diligence and spent a month examining lands in the provinces of Esperito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Although Dunn spoke highly of what he saw and the persons that he met during the expedition, he nevertheless was not convinced that the areas where he looked were of the quality that he desired. As a result, he determined, on January 9, 1866, to resume his survey in São Paulo Province. The first ten days were spent principally in areas along the coast at the settlement of Cananea and the colony of Cananea and along the Itapetininga, Gara-hu, and Pindavina rivers, then to the town of Botujuru. From there, Dunn when down the Jacupiranga River to the Ribeira de Iguape, a broad river that flows into the ocean in this small village of Iguape. On January 20, Dunn was set to proceed with his explo-rations when, in Iguape, he unexpectedly met Dr. James M. Gaston, at that time still prospecting for land for his own colony.

Notes -

Loosely translated from Portuguese, hence the mangled syntax 

New Texas, Xiririca, and Jiquai,  cooler parts of Brazil could claim similar failures and successes. The Texan was demoralized by the death of its leader Frank McMullen. This honest and talented man had made the trip while in the painful throes of tuberculosis he did not slacken his pace for the proper rest in directing his calling as to their places on the things that you Joquai.

 

As it happened at the Rio dolce, the vast plots of land given to the street 20 colonies did not receive enough settlers for the establishment of a regular pattern will riverboat line. When it became apparent that the government was not able to do it, some settlers try to set up a present life. But the boat on the ground on the rocks at River’s interests, were they were forced to navigate across shifting sandbars on uncharted, unstretched streams. It was a vicious circle that put a slow economic squeeze on the settlers as word of the success of the Americana-Santa Barbara plantations reached them.

 

The Rev. Dunn, whose intentions are still wrapped in ministry, took leave the flock three months after arriving at his Lizzie land. Some Confederate as to the state believe that the Parsons absconded with funds belonging to some of the colonists. The Miller family, in particular, was understood to have taken an oath that”that was the last preacher we would ever into money to>” done was the only leader whose love is forever question, that the evidence against him was circumstantial. As soon as his group reached Brazil, letters were received by the southern press, warning prospective immigrants against”the swindler”

 

in his way, Dunn left 400 Americans scattered across a plot of land is the largest state of Delaware, and over time, they blended into the Brazilian surroundings. It is reported by Trevor to be done colony in 1896 that only six houses were still being occupied by the Confederate auto families. The site was overgrown vegetation, and even the road was covered with weeks. There was no post office, no church, and the steamboats had stopped coming up the River.

 

On paper the economics of the colonization schemes seemed foolproof. Everything--- from special dispensation from the government and transportation to housing, roads, lover, Gristmill’s, and even nails--- had been attended to. But one by one the settlements for the park, and the people moved to other areas of Brazil. Somehow, isolation in Brazil was not as terrible as isolation in the United States. Many of the dedicated agriculturalists on excellent lands in São Paulo’s interior, but the bulk of the colonists went to the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro the Miller family of the dolce moved to Americana because of the coffee growing boom. Since there were now to Miller family can Americana, these recalls the dolce(the Portuguese word for sweet) Miller’s, and the others were teasingly referred to as the Camargo (sour) Miller’s.

----------------------------------------------------------------- on November 26, 1865, two Southerners, Dr. Hugh A Shaw, and Maj. Robert Meriwether arrived in real on the North America as agents of the southern immigration Society of Edgefield, South Carolina. The men were mandated by the side of the to look at all of the Lancet to receive government had made available for settlement. After their arrival Brazil, however, the two men realized the enormity of the project determined to visit only those probably these which were in the province of São Paulo, an area which one historian noted was supposed to be best adapted to the wants and necessities of the southern people. Meriwether and Shaw joined forces with Dr. James M Gaston in making their search, accompanied by a guide and an interpreter which were furnished by the preceding minister of agriculture Pablo E Susa. After first examining the area around the city of Santos, a port city of South of Rio de Janeiro, the Meriwether, and Shaw party preceded by rail to São Paulo with a secure the necessary accouterments impact was to go into the interior areas. Their journeys extended as far as 200 miles from the city of São Paulo to her acquirer, but these distant properties did not prove to be the site for which the men were searching. Instead, they became convinced of the merits of lands near photo cootie, lens Colace, and the Valley of the TA take. This property was, unfortunately, over 100 miles from a rare road, and Meriwether and Shaw were rightfully concerned about the problems that they would cease transporting crops after harvest. As a result, they recommended to the Edgefield District 7 colonization society properties around Campinas, on the high lands north of the city of São Paulo and relatively near the river. Two Southerners wrote Meriwether and Shaw in their report to the southern colonization site that society in South Carolina, Ari had located on lands in that street. Despite the work of Robert Meriwether and Dr. H A Shaw, a society did not sponsor a colonization effort in Brazil yet both Meriwether and Shaw were determined to make the country their home.